Performance indicator: definitionPerformance indicator: definition A measure of a situation to detect any change. A feature or characteristic used to measure whether, and/or the extent to which, a stated result has been achieved.
Performance indicator: conceptPerformance indicator: concept - establishing the baseline (to determine the situation at the beginning of the planning period) -setting a target (commitment) -measuring achievement (actual result) Using indicators to support program management involves: The baseline, target and achievement are values of the indicator at different times.
Indicators: technical qualities Indicators: technical qualities Sound indicators have the following qualities: Validity: The measurement captures what it is supposed to measure. Sensitivity: The measurement can detect the extent and direction of the change during the required timeframe. Reliability: The measurement is consistent and comparable across time and place.
Indicators: practical qualities Indicators: practical qualities Simple: consensus on meaning, easy to interpret, to assess and to use Practical: timely data collection, at reasonable cost Useful: for decision-making, and learning for better planning and implementation The chosen indicator(s) should be:
Indicators: Essential TraitsIndicators: Essential Traits •CREAM: Clear, Relevant, Economical, Adequate, Monitorable •QQTP: Quantity, Quality, Time, and Place or Population •DOPA: Direct (closely related to the intended change), Objective (operationalized and unambiguous), Practical (reasonable cost combined with high utility), and Adequate (no more or less than what’s necessary to measure intended change)
In summary, good indicators are… In summary, good indicators are… •Relevant to the stated result •Reliable signals that convey information about real changes •Objectively verifiable and not just subjective in their nature •Measurable with reasonable cost and effort •Helpful to managers: –in assessing whether the program is successful in achieving results –in improving the program
MDG Indicators #1-- Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger MDG Indicators #1-- Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day 1. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day 2. Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty] 3. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption
MDG Indicators #1-- Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger MDG Indicators #1-- Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger 4. Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age 5. Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption
MDG Indicators #2-- Achieve universal primary education MDG Indicators #2-- Achieve universal primary education Target 3: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling 6. Net enrolment ratio in primary education 7. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 8. Literacy rate of 15- 24 year-olds
MDG Indicators #3-- Promote gender equality and empower womenMDG Indicators #3-- Promote gender equality and empower women Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 9. Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education 10. Ratio of literate women to men, 15-24 years old 11. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector 12. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament
MDG Indicators #4-- Reduce child mortalityMDG Indicators #4-- Reduce child mortality Target 5: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate 13. Under-five mortality rate 14. Infant mortality rate 15. Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized against measles
MDG Indicators #5--Improve maternal healthMDG Indicators #5--Improve maternal health Target 6: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio 16. Maternal mortality ratio 17. Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
MDG Indicators #6--Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseasesMDG Indicators #6--Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Target 7: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS 18.HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15-24 years --19a. Condom use at last high- risk sex --19b. Percentage of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS --19c. Contraceptive prevalence rate 20. Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years
MDG Indicators #6--Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseasesMDG Indicators #6--Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Target 8: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases 21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria 22. Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures 23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis 24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course DOTS (Internationally recommended TB control strategy)
MDG Indicators #7--Ensure environmental sustainabilityMDG Indicators #7--Ensure environmental sustainability Target 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources 25. Proportion of land area covered by forest 26. Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area 27. Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP) 28. Carbon dioxide emissions per capita and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP tons) 29. Proportion of population using solid fuels
MDG Indicators #7--Ensure environmental sustainabilityMDG Indicators #7--Ensure environmental sustainability Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation 30. Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural 31. Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, urban and rural
MDG Indicators #7--Ensure environmental sustainabilityMDG Indicators #7--Ensure environmental sustainability Target 11: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers 32. Proportion of households with access to secure tenure
Measuring performanceMeasuring performance Income “Readings” on the same indicator “Readings” at different times Improvement Baseline Target Measurement at the end of the period
An approach for developing indicators:Step #2 (refine focus)An approach for developing indicators: Step #2 (refine focus) Qualitative Judgments or Perceptions: •Congruence with •Presence of •Quality of •Extent of •Level of Quantitative or Statistical Measures: •Number of •Frequency of •% of •Ratio of
An approach for developing indicators:Step #3 (combine quantity & quality)An approach for developing indicators: Step #3 (combine quantity & quality) •Indicator: % of births attended •Add Quantity: % of births attended INCREASED from 60% to 90% •Add Quality: Births attended by TRAINED health personnel increased from 60% to 90% •Add Time: Births attended by trained personnel increased from 60% to 90% by 2012 •Add Place: Births attended by trained personnel in X District increased from 60% to 90% by 2012
Developing Indicators:good practices for Results Framework Developing Indicators: good practices for Results Framework •Discuss results and indicators in parallel •Consult and get consensus among relevant staff regarding indicators •Apply the selection principles and discard those indicators that do not have the required qualities Valid Reliable Sensitive •Retain the best mix of indicators and keep alternatives in reserve (1or 2 indicators per stated result is sufficient) •Check the relevance of indicators to the state result Valid Simple Reliable Practical Sensitive Useful