Slide4Formation of the World The age of the universe is estimated to be 15 billion years. 12 billion years ago galaxies, 5 billion years ago, our solar system was formed in the Milky Way galaxy. The world was formed by clouds of gas and dust 500 million years after the formation of our solar system, 4.5 billion years ago.
Slide5Formation of the World Unicellular organisms emerged about 3.6 billion years ago and multicellular organisms emerged 1.7 billion years ago. About 570 million years ago, plants and animals were observed in the First Time (Paleozoic). In the Second Time (Mesozoic), dinosaurs began to appear 230 million years ago and mammals 220 million years ago. At the end of this period, dinosaurs were extinct about 65 million years ago. The Fourth Period is in two phases: Pleistocene and Holocene.
Slide6The Pleistocene period lasted 10,000 years ago, and the Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age occurred during this period. The Holocene period started 10 thousand years ago and still continues today. 2.5 million years ago the Paleolithic Era started with the building of people's stones. People of the Paleolithic Age were hunting and gathering, they lived a nomadic life after hunting animals, caves and underwater shelters Towards the end of the period, paintings and small figurines on the cave walls began to be seen. Formation of the World
Slide7The four-billion-year period from the formation of the earth to the Cambrian is called the Precambrian. • Formation of continental plates, atmosphere, and oceans. • The emergence of life, • The surface of the Earth cools and solidifies, • Evolution of bacteria, • Enrichment of the atmosphere to oxygen, • Evolution of eukaryotes (those in need of oxygen) and • The Emergence of first animals Such events take place prior to the Cambrian. Hadean (4.600 – 4.000 Million Years)
Slide14Scientists use the name Hadean for a period of about 600 million years, which dates back to Arkeen in the determination of the Earth as a celestial body during the formation of the Solar system. Geologist Preston Cloud derived this term in 1972 to describe the period before the oldest known rocks. Hadean
Slide15Hadean In the early periods of Hadean, when a celestial object of the size of Mars collided with the Earth, the fragments of the Earth formed the Moon. After its formation, the Moon will return to an orbit only 20,000 km away from our planet, but in the next few billion years, it will finally slowly begin to move away from its orbit.
Slide2All human species were observed during the Paleolithic Age. The Paleolithic Age has three phases; Lower, Middle and Upper. Homo habilis, homo rudolfensis, homo erectus, homo ergaster and homo heidelbergensis in Lower Paleolithic Age (2.500.000-200.000 BC); Homo neanderthalensis and homo sapiens in the Middle Paleolithic Age (200.000-40.000 BC); In the Upper Paleolithic Age (40.000-12.000 BC), people of the homo sapiens type were also seen. FIRST HUMAN TYPES
Slide3Homo Habilis It is a human species living in South and East Africa 2.5 million years and 1.5 million years ago. Average of 1.3 m. and brain volumes are 590-650 cm 3. Homo habilis skillful people. It is considered the first human species because they made the first stone tool 2.5 million years ago. The first stone tools created by carving pebbles were found in Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Malawi in Africa.
Slide8Homo Erectus 1.9 million years from today to 100 thousand years ago is a species of human living. The average length of 1.60-1.70m., Brain volume is around 950-1100 cm3. This species is the first humanity whose fossils were found in Africa. Asia and Europe are considered to have spread after the evolution of Africa. Homo erectus fossils dating back 1.9 million years to 1.6 million years have been accepted by some researchers as a separate species and are called homo erectus.
Slide9Homo Erectus Homo erectus made hand-cut axes (Acheulean-Culinary Technology) with two ends, they were hunted in a group organized and used the fire consciously for the first time 1.5 million years ago in Africa. It is thought that the first human to speak was also homo erectus.
Slide10Homo Heidelbergensisler It is a human species that lived in Europe, Asia and Africa 500 thousand -200 thousand years ago. The inhabitants of Europe are considered to be the ancestors of the later homo neanderthalensis.
Slide11Homo Neandertalensis He lived in Europe, the Near East and Central Asia 200,000-30,000 years ago. It has a cold weather-resistant body and has an average length of 1.55-1.60 m. Brain volumes are as large as that of modern man (1350 cm3). Chip stone tools were used during this period. Burial of the dead begins with Neanderthal Human for the first time. The Neanderthals buried their dead in the fetal position (hoker position), placing flowering plants next to the dead, now known as medicinal plants. Neanderthals were extinct 30,000 years ago.
Slide12Homo Sapiens It is a modern man. This human species began to live in Africa 130,000 years ago, the Middle East 90,000 years ago, and Europe 40,000 years ago. It spans 50,000-60,000 years ago in Australia and 15,000-20,000 years ago in the Americas. Homo sapiens are tall and have a long body structure that is suitable for living in a warm climate.
Slide13Homo Sapiens The average brain volume is 1350 cm3. 35,000 years ago, the first artistic products made by this human species emerged in Europe, Africa, and Australia. The paintings on the walls of the cave, and the statuettes of women made of stone, clay and ivory (Venus figurines) are the first works of art.