Slide32Outline Introduction Applications of sensor networks Factors influencing sensor network design Communication architecture of sensor networks Conclusion
Slide33A sensor network is composed of a large number of sensor nodes, which are densely deployed either inside the phenomenon or very close to it. Random deployment Cooperative capabilities
Slide34Applications of sensor networks temperature humidity vehicular movement lightning condition pressure soil makeup noise levels the presence or absence of certain kinds of objects mechanical stress levels on attached objects the current characteristics such as speed, direction, and size of an object
Slide35Monitoring friendly forces, equipment and ammunition Battlefield surveillance Reconnaissance of opposing forces and terrain Battle damage assessment Nuclear, biological and chemical attack detection and reconnaissance Military applications
Slide37Applications of sensor networks Environmental applications Forest fire detection Flood detection Precision agriculture
Slide38Health applications Applications of sensor networks Telemonitoring of human physiological data •Tracking and monitoring patients and doctors inside a hospital • Drug administration in hospitals
Slide39Home applications Applications of sensor networks Home automation Smart environment
Slide40Other commercial applications Applications of sensor networks Environmental control in office buildings Interactive museums Managing inventory control Vehicle tracking and detection Detecting and monitoring car thefts
Slide41Fault tolerance Factors influencing sensor network design Fault tolerance is the ability to sustain sensor network functionalities without any interruption due to sensor node failures. The fault tolerance level depends on the application of the sensor networks.
Slide42Scalability Factors influencing sensor network design Scalability measures the density of the sensor nodes. Density =(R) =(N R2)/A
Slide43Production costs Factors influencing sensor network design The cost of a single node is very important to justify the overall cost of the networks. The cost of a sensor node is a very challenging issue given the amount of functionalities with a price of much less than a dollar.
Slide45Environment Factors influencing sensor network design Busy intersections Interior of a large machinery Bottom of an ocean Inside a twister Surface of an ocean during a tornado Biologically or chemically contaminated field Battlefield beyond the enemy lines Home or a large building Large warehouse Animals Fast moving vehicles Drain or river moving with current.
Slide46Transmission media Factors influencing sensor network design In a sensor network, communicating nodes are linked by a wireless medium. To enable global operation, the chosen transmission medium must be available worldwide. §Radio §İnfared §Optical media
Slide47Power consumption Factors influencing sensor network design Sensing Communication Data processing
Slide48Communication architecture of sensor networks
Slide49Communication architecture of sensor networks
Slide50Application layer Factors influencing sensor network design The three possible application layer protocols are Sensor management protocol (SMP) Task assignment and data advertisement protocol (TADAP) Sensor query and data dissemination protocol (SQDDP)
Slide51Communication architecture of sensor networks Transport layer This layer is especially needed when the system is planned to be accessed through Internet or other external networks. No attempt thus far to propose a scheme or to discuss the issues related to the transport layer of a sensor network in literature.
Slide52Communication architecture of sensor networks Network Layer Power efficiency is always an important consideration. Data aggregation is useful only when it does not hinder the collaborative effort of the sensor nodes. An ideal sensor network has attribute- based addressing and location awareness.
Slide53Communication architecture of sensor networks Data aggregation
Slide54Communication architecture of sensor networks Data link layer The data link layer is responsible for the medium access and error control. It ensures reliable point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections in a communication network.
Slide55Communication architecture of sensor networks Medium access control Creation of the network infrastructure Fairly and efficiently share communication resources between sensor nodes
Slide56Communication architecture of sensor networks Power saving modes of operation Operation in a power saving mode is energy efficient only if the time spent in that mode is greater than a certain threshold.
Slide57Communication architecture of sensor networks Error Control Forward Error Correction (FEC) Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ). Simple error control codes with low- complexity encoding and decoding might present the best solutions for sensor networks.
Slide58Communication architecture of sensor networks Physical layer The physical layer is responsible for frequency selection, frequency generation, signal detection, modulation and data encryption.
Slide59Conclusion Flexibility and fault tolerance create exciting new applications for remote sensing In future the wide range of applications will make sensor networks an integral part of our lives