Berkay BOZKURT

    İstanbul, Turkey


    History of aviation

    Published: October 05, 2018

    History of aviation


    History of aviation

    • 1. History Of Aviation History Of Aviation
    • 2. History Of Aviation History Of Aviation Aviation history, primitive test flights in the early days of mankind 17 December 1903 'in the Wright brothers first powered air flight, including making massive manned flight is full development. One of the earliest stories of man's passion for flying since the first days he began to observe birds is the myth of Daedalus and his son Icarus, in Greek mythology. Other Indian, Chinese, and Medieval legends are also. According to this legend, King Minos confined the father Daedalus and his son to Crete. Daedalus, who was bored with his prison life, came up with wings of goose feathers to escape from the island using them. This is the oldest legendary manned flight. In short, in this period we can call primitive aviation, people could not go beyond imitating birds, but the later balloon, Zeppelin, gliders and eventually aircraft of various types, such as the aircraft they find the remains back from.
    • 3. History Of Aviation History Of Aviation Aircraft designers have worked hard to make their vehicles faster, go farther, higher, and easier to control. Aircraft engines became increasingly efficient, from steam to piston and then to jet and rocket engines. Aircraft became safer, materials were more durable and lightweight. Initially, the planes were made of canvas and wood. Then the canvas was replaced by varnished fabric and steel pipes. II. During World War II, aluminum monocoque production became widespread. Nowadays, aircraft, lighter, more durable and more comfortable to form because they are produced especially from carbon fiber and composite materials. The methods used to control the aircraft are developing more and more every day. In the beginning, the control of the gliders had the form of the movement of the entire body of the user or the wings, which were wobbly upward and pointing towards the tip, as in Alphonse Pénaud. (Today's modern wing shape) The tail was adjustable to provide horizontal positioning and had the same wing characteristics. Contemporary airplanes are controlled electronically via computers. Contemporary warplanes provide balanced flights with continuous commands from the flight computer to meet all acrobatic maneuvers.
    • 4. Before 20th Century Before 20th Century In the 9th century, Cordoba 's of Abbas ibn Firnas are known to have made the first flying gliders. Molmesbury'l Elmer, 1010 have done the same in the year and possibly Daedalus ' flight over 200 meters, made a story inspired by the flour. Following his trip to China , Marco Polo has brought stories of kites flying and carrying man under the influence of the wind . "Pao Phu Tau" is a Chinese book claiming the presence of revolving wing aircraft (helicopters ) in the 4th century . About 2 centuries later, in the 15th century, the delights of Marco Polo's trip were realized, and the Leonardo da Vinci drawings designed a glider that has survived to the present day. This glider was built at the end of the 19th century by using materials from that period, which were not built at that time but reached to the present day . This design, because it is a design worth to blow and blown to the Vinci is a prototype made starting from the original plan, has really seen that also fly, but of course the original design, contemporary streamlined and made some interventions using information. Leonardo also designed a helicopter during the same period, but it is clear that this design cannot fly.
    • 5. Before 20th Century Before 20th Century In the 17th century, Turkish scientist Lagari Hasan Çelebi threw himself into the air with the help of a missile (rocket) with a large cage and a conical shaped chamber filled with gunpowder . Flight, Ottoman Sultan IV. Murad 's daughter's birthday celebrations. After this flight, the Sultan made a soft landing on the Bosphorus and Sultan IV. It is believed that Murad honored him with a high rank in the army for his success. It is estimated that the flight lasts about 20 seconds and reached a height of about 300 meters. ( However, this is not a proven information by historical records, and is known only in Evliya Çelebi 's travelogue, known for his exaggerated stories . ) In 1638 , Hezarfen Ahmet Çelebi flew over the Bosphorus with a pair of wings inspired by birds. He started to fly from Galata Tower on the European side of the Bosphorus and dragged it, and he traveled 3 km and walked down to the Asian side of the Bosphorus. ( However, this is not a proven information by historical records, and is known only in Evliya Çelebi 's travelogue , known for his exaggerated stories . )
    • 6. Before 20th Century Before 20th Century In a publication published in Francesco Lana de Tailor in 1670, he mentioned that it was possible with spheres made of copper foils that were evacuated in-flight by airborne light. Drawing of the aircraft designed by him . In fact, the main point of this design is to skip the air around the spheres of the sphere that jumps to the inside of the spheres to be crushed so that they will cause the shrinking.
    • 7. Aerial Light Flight Aerial Light Flight Although many of us suggested that the manned flight started with an aircraft in the early 1900s , in fact, people had been flying for about a 200 years. The first manned flight accepted by the majority took place in Paris in 1783. Pilâtr Jean- François de Rozier and Francois d'Arlandes, the Montgolfier brothers, one were invented by a hot air balloon using 8 km have our path. The balloon was heated by the wood fire and could not be controlled, which meant that the wind was flying wherever it took it. Ballooning became a very common endeavor at the end of the 18th century , making it possible to discover the relationship between height and atmosphere . Now the airship can be routed we say, can be controlled, balloons are working on the development of control systems and has continued throughout the 1800s. The first controllable and lightweight airplane flight is believed to have been carried out by Henri Giffard in 1852 with a 24 km aircraft with a steam engine .
    • 8. Aerial Light Flight Aerial Light Flight Another notable development was in 1884 when Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs made the first fully controllable flight with La French (France), an electric motorized airship belonging to the French Army . The 170 ft (~ 51 m) long and 66000 ft³ (~ 1869 m³) airship has traveled 8 km in 23 minutes with the help of an electric motor of 8.5 bhp . However, these aircraft were very fragile and their lifespan was very short. The controllable flights became commonplace only by the presence of internal combustion engines . Although zeppelins I. and II. They were used in World Wars, and even if they are still used in a limited range, their development has stopped with the development of airborne aircraft.
    • 9. Better Understanding Of The Concept Better Understanding Of The Concept The first publication on aviation is "Drawing of a machine that can fly in the air" in 1716 by Emanuel Swedenborg . This flying machine has a very lightweight skeleton surrounded by a very strong canvas fabric and has two wide paddles or blades moving on a horizontal axis on both sides of it, while the blades do not undergo any resistance in their upward movement, while they provide the bearing force in their downward movement. Swedenborg knew very well that the machine could not fly, but he predicted it as a good start in solving the flying problem. "Talking about such a machine that is lighter than the weight of the human body and requiring a greater force would seem hard to make it a reality. Perhaps mechanical science will give this machine a meaning. If its advantages and necessity are understood, perhaps our drawing will be developed over time, and our the purpose of what we can only guess will be achieved.
    • 10. Better Understanding Of The Concept Better Understanding Of The Concept In the last years of the 18th century, Sir George Cayley launched the first meticulous work on physical flight . In 1799 he exhibited a glider plan. This glider was completely modern with the exception of the planform of its wings and had a separate tail for the control and was placed underneath the pilot center of the weight to provide better balance and flew the model in 1804. Over the next 50 years, Cayley continued to work on aviation and developed many basic concepts of aerodynamics , such as transport and drag . Both since although it uses both external and internal combustion engines, it has left its first power to Alphonse Penaud , which uses rubber (rubber) power to power the aircraft model . Later, Cayley used his research to make a full-size vehicle, which he first flew unmanned in 1849, and then in Yorkshire , in 1853, made a short flight from his deputy in Brompton to Scarborough . In 1848 , John Stringfellow conducted the test flight of the first steam engine model in Chard, Somerset, UK . It was an 'unmanned' flight.
    • 11. Better Understanding Of The Concept Better Understanding Of The Concept In 1856 , the Frenchman, Jean-Marie Le Bris , made his flight higher than his first flight with the glider, "L'Albatros artificiel" , shot on the beach by a horse . It is reported that the glider rises by 100 m and takes a 200 m course. 1874 in, Felix du Temple , aluminum made, wing span of 13 m and a large weight is only 80 kg excluding pilot single wing (monoplane) plane Brest , France 'also produced. Many tests have been carried out on this plane and it has been proven that the aircraft can climb up with its own power and then descend safely to the ground. This has made it the first flight powered flight in history, even if the flight is for a very short distance and time.
    • 12. Better Understanding Of The Concept Better Understanding Of The Concept One of the people who developed the art of flying is Francis Herbert Wenham . Wenham attempts to manufacture a series of unmanned failed gliders. During his studies, he found that most of the carriage in a bird wing-like wing was formed in front of the wing. He took it even further and realized that thin wings were better than bat wing type wings, as opposed to many people's claims, because such thin wings had maore break edges than their weight . Today, this measurement is known as the openness ratio of the wing . In 1866, the British Royal Aviation Society,In 1871, to prove his work, he decided to build the world's first wind tunnel . The members of the community found that using the tunnel, curved blades create more transport than the Newtonian association of Cayley with a transport-drag ratio of 5: 1 and an angle of 15 °. This showed that air-to- heavy flying machines could easily be produced, although firstly strengthening them (with the engine, etc.) and controlling the flight seem to be a problem.
    • 13. Accelerate Steps Accelerate Steps The 1880s were a period of heated work, with many researches until the 20th century. With the beginning of the 1880s, the construction of the first truly practical glider was possible. During this period, three people were really active: Otto Lilienthal, Percy Pilcher and Octave Chanute. One of the truly modern gliders was produced by John J. Montgomery, and on August 28, 1883, this glider had to fly outside San Diego. These efforts were known only after many years. Another delta wing style glider near Vienna 1877 was made by Wilhelm Kress. German otto Lilienthal doubled Wenham's work in 1874, and in 1889 published all of his work. In addition, a series of better gliders have produced and in 1891 with these gliders 25m distance flights have made ordinary. He has meticulously recorded all of his work, including photographing, and that is why he is one of the best known among hais early pioneers. His aircraft is now known as the wing of sails.
    • 14. Accelerate Steps Accelerate Steps Lilienthal knew from the moment the engine was fitted to the plane that the laws of aviation were not likely to work further. These laws, which he found and defined, were his most important legacy to those coming after him, and his followers used these laws to save many attempts and mistakes. In 1896, when he was flying with the latest design, a heavy wind fell from a height of 17 m when the vehicle's wings were broken and his backbone was broken. His last words were "Victims must be given" when he died the day after his fall. Before he died, Lilienthal was working on suitable small engines to strengthen his designs.
    • 15. Accelerate Steps Accelerate Steps Octave Chanute continued from Lilienthal's standstill to prevent early retirement from aircraft designs and to finance the development of many gliders. In the summer of 1896, he created his designs on Miller Beach in Indiana and concluded that the best was a more contemporary-looking biplane design. Like Lilienthal, Chanute photographed and recorded all of her work and contacted people from all over the world. Unlike the birds, Chanute was particularly interested in the balanced flight issue that people had to do manually, not their instincts. The biggest problem was the vertical balance, because the angle of attack increased when the center of pressure slipping forward, which increased the angle of attack and caused the vehicle to run over the nose and loss of grip if there was no immediate intervention.
    • 16. Accelerate Steps Accelerate Steps During this period, there have been many attempts to make the aircraft actually powered (engine, etc.). However, many amateur aviators, who did not consider the problems described by Lilienthal and Chanute, have failed most of their trials. In 1890, Clement Ader, France, took the first "long-haul" propeller flight in the history of Paris near Paris, flying a short distance of 50 m with a steam engine Eole. After this attempt, he began to work on a larger design that would last a full 5 years. However, this design, called Avion III, was very heavy and could barely take off. It has been reported that the aircraft has traveled a distance of 300 meters far from the ground.
    • 17. Accelerate Steps Accelerate Steps Sir Hiram Maxim, England from worked on a series of design and finally each of the 180 hp (134 kW) with 2 lightweight steam engine equipped with the flap opening of 32 m, weight has designed a giant with 3,175 kg. Maxim had created a design of this magnitude to study the fundamental problems of production and did not add the control system because it knew that it would not be safe to fly with such a vehicle. For this, he built a 550m long rail test path that the aircraft could travel on. After doing several trial runs to work on the problems, 31 July 1894's strength in the series by increasing the force of a series of trial runs. His first two attempts were successful and the vehicle was flying over the rails. In the afternoon, the team activated all of the steam boilers to achieve full power, which caused the vehicle speed to reach a speed of 68 km / h in the 180th meter of the road and then lift itself apart from the rails, causing the vehicle to crash to the ground after flying at a height of 60 m. His incessant chances prevented him from working on a smaller, gas-powered design in the 1900s.
    • 18. Accelerate Steps Accelerate Steps Another successful early designer was Samuel Pierpont Langley. After a distinguished career in astronomy, the University of Pittsburg, now known as the Smithsonian Institute, has done serious research in the field of aerodynamics. In 1891, he published his work called Aerodynamic Experiments and then began to produce designs. On May 6, 1896 , Aerodrome No. 6, issued to Aerodrome No. 6, issued May 6, 1896; 5 named as the first successful and noteworthy design, it flew twice as high as 40 km / h, the first of which was 1000 m and the second with 700 m. On November 28, another successful flight was made by Aerodrome N. 6, a similar model, and this time it managed to fly about 1460 m. Another airborne heavy flight was performed by Percy Pilcher in England. Pilcher was flying successfully until the mid-1890s; Names The Bat (bat), The Beetle (Bug), The Hawk (Hawk) and The Gull (Seagull), which many employees glider has produced. In 1899, he built an engine-powered aircraft prototype that showed that today's work could also fly, but he died in a glider crash before trying this tool, and his work was forgotten for years.
    • 19. Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Lighter than air: The first aircrafts to be routinely controlled were zeppelins without traces and were later referred to as "blimp" The most successful pioneer of this species was the Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont. Santos-Dumont has very effectively associated an internal combustion engine with a balloon. In 1901, he gained a worldwide fame when he won the Deutsch de la Meurthe award when he strolled the dirigible "Number 6" around the Eiffel Tower in the skies of Paris in the Saint Cloud Park and came back for less than 30 minutes. Following this success in the zeppelins, it was set to design and produce various aerospace operations.
    • 20. Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Langley: Aerodrome No.5 and then No. With the success of 6, Langley has begun a search for finance to design a real-size version suitable for human transportation. He managed to get $ 50,000 from the government, and perhaps at the time fueled the newly - defeated Spanish-American War. In order to build the enlarged scale of the model known as the Aerodrome A, Langley began to produce a smaller design called the Aerodrome of the Quarter, which would fly twice on June 18, 1901 and then fly in 1903 with a more powerful engine.
    • 21. Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Langley: After the basic design was successfully tested, it began to work on a more suitable engine problem. He signed with Stephen Balzer for this purpose, but was disappointed when an engine he designed meant to be 12 hp (9 kW) could only be produced by Balzer at 8 hp (6 kW). Langley's assistant Charles M. Manly has designed a 5-cylinder water-cooled engine with 52 hp (39 kW) at 950 RPM, which can take many years to build an engine of the same performance. Langley was now more hopeful, combining the design of an engine with this power in his hand.
    • 22. Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Langley: However, he was disappointed that the vehicle he designed was too fragile. As with the actual size of the design using many small models, this type of approach, ie, the small model produced on the basis of the small model would have made the aircraft more serious than expected. To simplify his large-scale design was heavy enough to fly. In both trials in 1903, the aircraft was crashed into the water shortly after taking off. Lagley's work was over when he couldn't find more finance. Only a few weeks after the Wright brothers' design worthy of the name Flyer (Fly) successfully it would end. ( Glen Curtiss made several modifications to the Aerodrome (additions-changes) and flew him successfully in 1914 - that's why the Smithsonian Institute still maintains his claim to be the "first flying machine".
    • 23. Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Wright Brothers: The Wright brothers, who set out on Lilienthal's principle of flying before flying, did a series of kites and gliders from 1900 to 1902, before producing a powered vehicle. His gliders worked as much as they had written and experienced by their predecessors in the 19th century. The first glider they flew in 1900 had only transported half of what they had hoped. The second glider they produced the following year gave a much worse result. Instead of giving up, the Wright brothers designed their own wind tunnels, which they designed to carry out experiments related to the transport and drag calculations on the 200 wings they designed and developed with different tools for measurements they built it. As a result, they corrected the mistakes made by their predecessors about transport and drag.
    • 24. Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Wright Brothers: However, the number of Reynolds known since 1883, which is likely to give them a greater advantage, overlooked the effect. They built the third glider to fly in 1902 using the new calculations they found. This model was more successful than the previous ones. In the end, building a wind tunnel to test these rigorous and meticulous works, models, and test flights of models of its real size did not just make them a right-handed aircraft, but also all of this led to the development of aircraft engineering.
    • 25. Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Wright Brothers: The Wright brothers' team was the first design team to work seriously on the problems of designs that were both reinforced (engine-driven) and controllable. Although both problems are very difficult to deal with, they have never lost their appeal. As a result, they have built an engine to solve power problems and have solved control problems by a system called " wing warping ". This method, although only the history of aviation has solved the problems of flight control at low speed in the first year, though that will be developed at the same time then the aileron laid the foundation. While many aviation pioneers have often left the chance to safety, the design of the Wrights has been influenced by the principle of avoiding unnecessary risks and avoiding crashes, where they feel the need to teach them more. This was not because they lacked the power (engine) to fly faster, but because they were experimenting at low speeds and had to take the wind away because of the safer flight. It can also be heavy in the rear of design and design canard with Anhedral lArIndAndI use style wings.
    • 26. Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Wright Brothers: The Wright brothers were able to carry out the first sustainably heavy airborne and motorized flight on 17 December 1903 at Kill Devil Hills in North Carolina. The first flight, which lasted 12 seconds by Orville Wright and was 37 m, was subsequently recorded with a very famous photograph. On the same day, on the fourth flight, Wilbur Wright made a flight of 59 seconds and 260 meters. Their flight trials were monitored by 4 lifeguards anda one person from the town, which made the first public flight and the best recorded flight.
    • 27. Between the years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Between the years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Other leading flights: In the same period, other inventors also claimed to have made or made short flights. On August 14, 1901, Gustave Whitehead reported flying with a powered vehicle. However, even though he was not able to record this flight, a copy of the number 21 vehicle he flew later was flown successfully. Lyman Gilmore also claimed success on 15 May 1902. March 31, 1903, in New Zealand , Richard Pearse and South Canterbury The farmer produced a cannons and successfully flew it several times. However, even Pearse himself admitted that it was an uncontrolled flight, and stated that the flight was over before he could gain a more accurate altitude (altitude). Just a few months after Pearse, Karl Jatho made a short motorized flight in August 1903. The wing design of the Jatho and the airspeed control surfaces of the vehicle did not allow it to operate well enough to control the aircraft.
    • 28. Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Other leading flights: Also in 1903, some witnesses claimed that Preston Watson made his first flight to Errol village near Dundee in eastern Scotland. Once again, it was difficult to prove the accuracy of this claim, as there were no photographs and recorded records. The Wright brothers called in 1905 in Dayton, Ohio, and in 1904 called friends, neighbors and journalists, and carried on many (more than 80) public flights. However, when they invited them, only a few showed interest. On September 13th of 1906, Alberto Santos-Dumont made a public flight to Europe. He used a kanard, elevator, and curved wing and covered a distance of 221 meters. Since this aircraft does not require a catapult for any counter-wind and take-off, some of them count the first flight of this flight.
    • 29. Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Other leading flights: Henry Farman and John William Dunne were two British inventors working on separate engines. In January 1908, Farman won the Grand Prix d'Aviation award for a machine that was flying more than 1 km long, even though long-haul flights had been made so far. For longer flights; In 1905, the Wright Brothers had more than 39 km of flights. Dunne's first work was supported by the British Military Force and tested in great secrecy at Glen Tilt in Scotland. The best early design, the D4, flew in December 1908 at Blair Atholl in Perthshire. Dunne 'It was equivalent to that of the Wright brothers and both Samuel Cody 'were key issues in the study. On May 14, 1908, the Wright Brothers took their flight to Charlie Furnas, which was to be considered the first two-person flight.On July 8, 1908, Thérèse Peltier, in Milan, Italy, was the first woman to fly with Leon Delagrange, flying about 200 m.At the Fort Myer in Orville, Virginia, the plane was crashed while the two-man aircraft were being militarily tested, and as a result, Thomas Selfridge was the first to die on a motorized flight.
    • 30. Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Other leading flights: Mrs. Hart O. Berg was the first American woman to fly as a passenger on an airplane with Wilbur Wright in Le Mans, France in late 1908.On July 25, 1909, the Frenchman Louis Bleriot was the first to fly the British Channel. The flight from Calais to Dover took 37 minutes. This flight took place with the development of his unicorn design, Bleriot XI, and passed the Channel and won a £ 1,000 prize from the London Daily Mail.On October 22, 1909, Raymonde de Laroche became the first woman to use a heavy-duty aircraft. He was also the first woman to have a pilot license on earth.Although the invention of the aircraft has been paid to the Wright Brothers, many nations have their first experiences in their aviation history.
    • 31. Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Between The Years 1900-1914 "Pioneers Period" Other leading flights: For example, it is claimed that the Romanian engineer Traian Vuia (1872-1950) produced the first self-propelled airborne heavy-duty aircraft capable of taking off on its power without the need for the opposite wind. Vuia built and used the aircraft on March 18, 1906, in Montesson, near Paris. No flight was more than 30 meters long. Compared to this, in October 1905, the Wright Brothers had a 39-minute journey, which lasted for 39 minutes and traveled on the Huffman Prairie.Although the first genuinely identifiable helicopter was Fock FA-61 (Germany 1936 ), the first helicopter to fly from the ground flew in 1907.
    • 32. First military uses First military uses Airplanes are also included in the military service as soon as they are met. The first state to use aircraft for military purposes was Italy (Kingdom of Italy). Italian aircraft took part in the Tripoli War (29 September 1911-18 October 1912) against the Ottoman Empire for bombing and discovery in Libya. They carried out the first reconnaissance mission on 23 October 19a11 and the first bombing on 1 November 1911. In addition, the first fighter aircraft in history was reduced by the firing of Ottoman soldiers in this war. The use of aircraft in the war continued after the Kingdom of Bulgaria in Italy. Bulgarian aircraft were used in the First Balkan War (8 October 1912 - 30 May 1913) for reconnaissance against the Ottoman Empire.
    • 33. 1914 - 1918: World War I 1914 - 1918: World War I World War I was the first to use airplanes as a means of attack, defense, and exploration. In World War I, the Entente Powers and the Alliance States both used airplanes quite a bit. The most famous aircraft of the war was the Sopwith Camel, which had won more air victories than any other aircraft, but was also known for its impractical and challenging control system, which killed many pilots.The airmen were seen as knights of the modern age. Many pilots became famous for their air-to-air collisions.
    • 34. 1914 - 1918: World War I 1914 - 1918: World War I The most well-known of these was Manfred von Richthofen, nicknamed Red Baron, and had dropped over 80 planes in the air-to-air combat with some different aircraft, including Fokker Dr. I. On the other hand, the most famous pilot of the Entente Powers was Rene Paul Fonck, who had many victories.While the idea of using airplanes as a weapon during World War I was initially ridiculous, all the leading forces never underestimated the idea of using airplanes as a means of taking photographs. All of the high forces are typically modified according to the purpose of the pre-war sports photographer for model aircraft only, albeit not necessarily discoveries were bulunduruy the team. Although their initial effort was made difficult by their low load-carrying capacity, these efforts gained meaning through the development of two-person models.
    • 35. 1914 - 1918: World War I 1914 - 1918: World War I Just before the planes started firing at each other, the problem was that they could not find a suitable stationary position by placing the weapon. The French solved this problem by wearing a machine gun in front of Rolan Garros ' plane in 1914, but Adolphe Pegoud 5 won the first "flying aces", and then the first ace in the battle.
    • 36. 1918 - 1939: "The Golden Age" 1918 - 1939: "The Golden Age" World War I and II. The years between World War II have made significant progress in aircraft technology. In this period, the plane made a transition from being produced using mostly wood and canvas (almost a kind of fabric) to almost entirely from aluminum. Also in this period, there have been giant developments in engine technology and the engines of sequential water- cooled engines have been switched to star and air-cooled engines. There was a massive increase in the pushing force thus obtained. As a result of all these developments, the distance and the speed of the flights were increased. Charles Lindbergh, for example, won the Orteig Award as the first pilot on his own, even though he was not the first pilot to drive across the Atlantic. took £ 25,000. It wasn't the first time because it was exactly eight years ago again from the Atlantic, but this time by two people, a Vickers Vimy plane with Captain John Alcock and Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown, on June 14, 1919, in Newfoundland. John flew to Clifden in Ireland and won the Northcliffe Award of £ 10,000.
    • 37. 1918 - 1939: "The Golden Age" 1918 - 1939: "The Golden Age" Pilots, II. After World War II, they were more enthusiastic to show their new abilities. Many American pilots became air walkers, and they did demonstrations in small towns as well as those who wanted to give them the experience of flying. Also during this period, airplanes were competed in many air shows organized. Such races have led to significant developments both in the field of engine and body design. As pilots competed for cash, it always encouraged them to find faster. Perhaps the most famous of this aerobics was Amelia Earhart. He was also the first woman to ever cross the Atlantic and the British Channel.
    • 38. 1918 - 1939: "The Golden Age" 1918 - 1939: "The Golden Age" Scotland 'havalanıp in the East Lothian New York ' take Long Islan 'then down again in England ' Best Pulham 'to returning to R34 from the airship, the Atlantic has been the light of the first aircraft in the air. By the year 1929, airship technology it has come to a point in the first world tour in September, the Graf Zeppelin from the ship, and again in October of the same aircraft has completed the first commercial transatlantic flight. Unfortunately, the life of the controllable zeppelins ended with the famous Hindenburg disaster in 1937. Hindenburg After the handshaking in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the people crashed and the vast majority of passengers on board was relieved, people stopped using the zeppelins for their journeys. Hindenburg disaster, 21 July 1919 at Chicago, Illinois ' which resulted in the deaths of 12 people until Winged Foot Express comes on top of this situation has caused the accident scene to take their place in the history of the zeppelin.
    • 39. 1918 - 1939: "The Golden Age" 1918 - 1939: "The Golden Age" In the 1930s, the jet engine began to be developed both in Germany and the UK. In the UK, Frank Whittle patented a jet engine in 1930, and by the end of the 30s, he began developing an engine. In Germany, Hans von Ohain patented his jet engine in 1936 and began to develop a similar engine. Both were unaware of each other, and both Germany and Britain had their jet planes II. At the end of World War II, they had developed.
    • 40. 1939 - 1945: II. World War 1939 - 1945: II. World War I. World War II was a significant step forward in the development and production of aircraft. All the countries involved in the war did so much development and production, such as the V-2 missile of the Germans in the aircraft and the weapons systems connected to it. World War I witnessed the first jet fighter with its first long-range bomber. The model of the first real jet aircraft was German Heinkel He 178 and was blown away by Erich Warsitz in 1939. Coanda-1910, the leading prototype of it, made a short-distance flight on 16 December. The first missile V-1 and the first ballistic missile V-2was developed by the Germans. Neither jet planes nor ballistic missiles were highly influenced because V-1 was not very useful, nor was the V-2 produced in numbers that would be useful. The development of the P-51 Mustang aircraft was an essential point for the development of heavy bomber aircraft regarding increased load. The table below shows the airplane production in the United States, and in particular the significant impact of the war on this production:
    • 41. 1939 - 1945: II. World War 1939 - 1945: II. World War Medicine 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 Total Super Heavy Bombers 0 0 4 91 1,147 2,657 3,899 Heavy Bombers 19 181 2,241 8.695 3,681 27.874 42.691 Medium Level Bombers 24 326 2,429 3,989 3,636 1,432 1 1.836 Light Bombers 16 373 1,153 2,247 2,276 1,720 7.785 Fighter Planes 187 1,727 5.213 11.766 18.291 10.591 47.775 Discovery Planes 10 165 195 320 241 285 1,216 Carrier Planes 5 133 1,264 5,072 6,430 3,043 15,947 Training Planes 948 5.585 11.004 11.246 4,861 825 34.469 Contact Aircraft 0 233 2,945 2,463 1,608 2,020 9.269 Annual Total 1,209 8,723 26.448 45.889 51.547 26.254 160.070 Also II. See the list of planes in World War II.
    • 42. 1945 - 1991: Cold War 1945 - 1991: Cold War Commercial aviation, II. After World War II, he started to develop people and goods by using old military aircraft. Within a few years, several companies have been established, including flights to North America, Europe and other parts of the world. This rapid advance was because large-body bombers such as B-29 and Lancaster could easily be converted into commercial aircraft. At the same time, thanks to the DC-3, easier and longer flights were possible. After the British Comet, North America's first commercial jet plane was the Euro C102 Jetliner flying in September 1949. By 1952, The British Overseas Airlines Company had already taken the De Havilland Comet on its scheduled flights. However, as these technical advances continue, this aircraft has suffered a lot from the many structural fractures on it due to the cause of metal fatigue and the shape of its windows in particular. Metal fatigue was caused by the constant cyclic pressure of the cabin and then by depressing and of course, this caused the aircraft body to be severely damaged. When these problems were solved, other jet passenger planes had already taken their place in the heavens, one of which was Boeing 700and this aircraft had moved to higher levels of comfort and safety offered to passengers. The 707 aircraft has become a pioneer in commercial aviation today.
    • 43. 1945 - 1991: Cold War 1945 - 1991: Cold War II. Even at the end of World War II, there was still a need for further development in aircraft and missile technologies. Although it was not long before the end of the war, in October 1947, Chuck Yeager overcame the speed of sound with the Bell X-1 missile. Although during the war there were rumors that some pilots had passed the speed of sound when they plunged in for bombardment, this flight was the first flight through which the sound wall was crossed in a controlled and level manner. Following this, in 1948 and 1952, the first flight of a jet aircraft to the Atlantic and the first flight to Australia took place. The 1950s would be written as a new era in the history of military aviation. When the Soviet Union developed bombers capable of making long-distance flights to carry nuclear weapons to North America and Europe, the Western countries responded to these planes with preventive aircraft that would capture and destroy them before they reached their targets.
    • 44. 1945 - 1991: Cold War 1945 - 1991: Cold War In 1961, the sky had no longer created a limit for manned flight, and Yuri Gagarin had already left the world and made a 108-minute orbit flight. This phase accelerated the space race, which began in 1957 when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1. The United States, this response Mercury space capsule with Alan Shepard then gave sending into space to orbit six flights. Alouette 1 's 1963 space was sent to the United States to send a satellite into space in the third country. The space race between the US and the USSR, the moon in 1969the stroke of manned flight was caused to reach its climax. In this period, the only development in the history of aviation was not the success achieved in space. In 1967, the X-15 aircraft set the fastest record ever achieved for an aircraft, reaching 6.1 Mach (7.297 km / h). Putting aside aircraft designed to fly outside the atmosphere, this record, until that day obtained the highest air speed record for powered flight as of olmuştur.2004 http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/x-43ax-43a to have lost.
    • 45. 1945 - 1991: Cold War 1945 - 1991: Cold War In 1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin stepped on the moon and Boeing attracted attention with the Boeing 747 design, reflecting the future of air transport. This aircraft is still one of the largest planes still built today and carries millions of passengers every year. Commercial aviation has made even higher, with British Airlines launching its over-the-top Atlantic flight in 1976 with Concorde. A few years ago, the Atlantis had broken the aircraft speed record called SR-71 Karakus, which was flying in less than 2 hours, and Concorde followed this development with a passenger. The fourth quarter of the 20th century, in contrast to the first three quarters, was slower regarding developments in aviation. No more revolutionary developments in flight speed, distances, and technology. This period of the century was the scene of major developments in aeronautical electronics and minor advances in aviation.
    • 46. 1945 - 1991: Cold War 1945 - 1991: Cold War For example, in 1979, Gossamer Albatross was the first man-powered aircraft to cross the British channel. Although this success has been the transformation of human imagination into reality for centuries, it has made a significant contribution to the development of commercial or military aviation. In 1986, Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager landed around the world on a plane without ever refueling. In 199, Bertrand Piccard became the first person to go around the world with a balloon. By the end of the 20th century, all the small or big successes that had to be developed for the subsonic aeronautics had been achieved. After that, the eyes were directed towards the discovery of space and the fast flight. No longer, Thanks to the awards such as the Ansari X Award, many aviation enthusiasts would aim to get out of the atmosphere by making fast rockets from the personal voice.
    • 47. 2001 - Present 2001 - Present At the beginning of the 21st century, subsonic aeronautics focused on eliminating the pilot concept for vehicles that could be entirely self-directed or remotely driven. Many Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV was developed. In April 2001, the unmanned aircraft Global Hawk flew from Edwards Airbase in the US to Australia without stopping and refueling. This was the longest unmanned aircraft flight ever made from one point to another and lasted 23 hours and 23 minutes. For the first time in October 2003, the flight of a computer-conAtrolled model airplane that crosses the Atlantic and is entirely self-controlled is realized. Commercial aviation saw the end of the 21st century at the end of a period when the Concorde planes retired. The exclusive design of the Concorde, its fine structure and the resulting passenger limitation, as well as the very high fuel consumption, may seem to prevent it from becoming an excellent commercial airplane, but British Airways had a significant income from the operation of this aircraft.
    • 48. 2001 - Present 2001 - Present In spite of this step back and the slowdown in the development of aviation, the belief that the 21st century will be a bright century in aviation is a general opinion. Airplanes and missiles are unique in their speed and carrying capacity and must never be underestimated. As long as people need to move from place to place, aviation will also be required.
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