- 1. A SiQuENC for developing and communicating written REASoNingfor AP Physics 1 and 2 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating written REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 Based in part on doi:10.1119/1.5028250 DAVID LIAO.COM ▶️ Click to begin the tutorial.
- 2. A SiQuENC for developing and communicating written REASoNingfor AP Physics 1 and 2 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating written REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 Based in part on doi:10.1119/1.5028250 DAVID LIAO.COM Use this tutorial throughout the year to review two mnemonics for solving problems in AP Physics 1. “SiQuENC” outlines steps for using multiple representations, and “REASoN” lists rhetorical points that can support written explanations. ▶️ Click to see a practice problem. AP® and Advanced Placement® are registered trademarks of the College Board, which does not endorse this tutorial.
- 3. Slide9 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) Questions like the sample at the left can lead students to complain, “I don’t know how to answer the question because the question doesn’t have any numbers!” Read the problem statement. ▶️ Click to see how to start a solution. A written problem statement is hard to understand, so, in this step, we translate the problem statement into a picture. ▶️ Click to see how we translate each feature of the problem statement.
- 4. Slide14 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) To translate the problem statement into a picture, we 1.underline a portion of the problem statement and then 2.illustrate the feature(s) described by that portion of the problem statement. We repeat steps (1) and (2) until we can understand the problem using just our picture, without referring back to the original problem statement. This tutorial will pause each time a portion of the problem statement is underlined and each time a feature is sketched. ▶️ Click to continue.
- 5. Slide33 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) To translate the problem statement into a picture, we 1.underline a portion of the problem statement and then 2.illustrate the feature(s) described by that portion of the problem statement. We repeat steps (1) and (2) until we can understand the problem using just our picture, without referring back to the original problem statement. This tutorial will pause each time a portion of the problem statement is underlined and each time a feature is sketched. ▶️ Click to continue. +x
- 6. Slide15 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) +x To translate the problem statement into a picture, we 1.underline a portion of the problem statement and then 2.illustrate the feature(s) described by that portion of the problem statement. We repeat steps (1) and (2) until we can understand the problem using just our picture, without referring back to the original problem statement. This tutorial will pause each time a portion of the problem statement is underlined and each time a feature is sketched. ▶️ Click to continue.
- 7. Slide17 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 +x Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) A B To translate the problem statement into a picture, we 1.underline a portion of the problem statement and then 2.illustrate the feature(s) described by that portion of the problem statement. We repeat steps (1) and (2) until we can understand the problem using just our picture, without referring back to the original problem statement. This tutorial will pause each time a portion of the problem statement is underlined and each time a feature is sketched. ▶️ Click to continue. The problem focuses on Alice and Bob, so we draw a dashed bubble to show that our system of interest is Alice and Bob.
- 8. Slide16 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 +x Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) A B To translate the problem statement into a picture, we 1.underline a portion of the problem statement and then 2.illustrate the feature(s) described by that portion of the problem statement. We repeat steps (1) and (2) until we can understand the problem using just our picture, without referring back to the original problem statement. This tutorial will pause each time a portion of the problem statement is underlined and each time a feature is sketched. ▶️ Click to continue.
- 9. Slide18 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 +x Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) A B To translate the problem statement into a picture, we 1.underline a portion of the problem statement and then 2.illustrate the feature(s) described by that portion of the problem statement. We repeat steps (1) and (2) until we can understand the problem using just our picture, without referring back to the original problem statement. This tutorial will pause each time a portion of the problem statement is underlined and each time a feature is sketched. ▶️ Click to continue.
- 10. Slide19 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 +x Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) A B To translate the problem statement into a picture, we 1.underline a portion of the problem statement and then 2.illustrate the feature(s) described by that portion of the problem statement. We repeat steps (1) and (2) until we can understand the problem using just our picture, without referring back to the original problem statement. This tutorial will pause each time a portion of the problem statement is underlined and each time a feature is sketched. ▶️ Click to continue.
- 11. Slide20 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 +x ?: vs. Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) A B To translate the problem statement into a picture, we 1.underline a portion of the problem statement and then 2.illustrate the feature(s) described by that portion of the problem statement. We repeat steps (1) and (2) until we can understand the problem using just our picture, without referring back to the original problem statement. This tutorial will pause each time a portion of the problem statement is underlined and each time a feature is sketched. ▶️ Click to continue.
- 12. Slide22 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 To translate the problem statement into a picture, we 1.underline a portion of the problem statement and then 2.illustrate the feature(s) described by that portion of the problem statement. We repeat steps (1) and (2) until we can understand the problem using just our picture, without referring back to the original problem statement. This tutorial will pause each time a portion of the problem statement is underlined and each time a feature is sketched. ▶️ Click to continue. We’ve finished translating the problem statement into a picture. ▶️ Click to see the next problem- solving step. +x ?: vs. Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) A B Why? Graphically represent Quantities and their relationships
- 13. Slide10 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) Graphically represent Quantities and their relationships +x ?: vs. A B Why?
- 14. Slide31 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) Graphically represent Quantities and their relationships +x ?: vs. A B Why?
- 15. Slide32 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) Graphically represent Quantities and their relationships 0 A B +x ?: vs. A B Why?
- 16. Slide30 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) Graphically represent Quantities and their relationships 0 A B +x ?: vs. A B Why? ▶️ Click to see the next step.
- 17. Slide23 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) Graphically represent Quantities and their relationships 0 A B +x ?: vs. A B Why? Identify relevant allowed starting point (in)Equation(s) ▶️ Click to see the next step. Having represented the problem in three ways, we are ready to solve the problem. ▶️ Click to see the next step.
- 18. Slide12 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 ?: vs. ?: vs. Why? +x A B Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) Graphically represent Quantities and their relationships Identify relevant allowed starting point (in)Equation(s) ANalyze (which does not necessarily mean just algebra) 0 A B A B State and walk through a relevant Relationship from allowed knowledge State what quantities, if any, are Equal, and why State what quantities, if any, are Altered or different, and why So what? Is there any quantity to analyze Next? ▶️ Click to advance the tutorial between substeps. ▶️ Click to see the last step. B A B A
- 19. Slide25 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 Why? +x A B Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) Graphically represent Quantities and their relationships Identify relevant allowed starting point (in)Equation(s) ANalyze (which does not necessarily mean just algebra) 0 A B A B State and walk through a relevant Relationship from allowed knowledge State what quantities, if any, are Equal, and why State what quantities, if any, are Altered or different, and why So what? Is there any quantity to analyze Next? Communicate During the race, Alice and Bob travel for the same amount of time because (a) they start running at the same time and (b) the race ends for both runners at the same time. ▶️ Click to show a sentence. The circled numbers decorating the sketch, the graph, and the equation make it easy to figure out what to write. ▶️ Click to review the mnemonic REASoN. ?: vs. B A B A
- 20. Slide26 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 ?: vs. Why? +x A B Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) Graphically represent Quantities and their relationships Identify relevant allowed starting point (in)Equation(s) ANalyze (which does not necessarily mean just algebra) 0 A B A B Communicate During the race, Alice and Bob travel for the same amount of time because (a) they start running at the same time and (b) the race ends for both runners at the same time. State and walk through a relevant Relationship from allowed knowledge State what quantities, if any, are Equal, and why State what quantities, if any, are Altered or different, and why So what? Is there any quantity to analyze Next? ▶️ Click to review the mnemonic SiQuENC. B A B A
- 21. Slide27 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 ?: vs. State and walk through a relevant Relationship from allowed knowledge State what quantities, if any, are Equal, and why State what quantities, if any, are Altered or different, and why So what? Is there any quantity to analyze Next? Why? +x A B 0 A B A B During the race, Alice and Bob travel for the same amount of time because (a) they start running at the same time and (b) the race ends for both runners at the same time. Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) Graphically represent Quantities and their relationships Identify relevant allowed starting point (in)Equation(s) ANalyze (which does not necessarily mean just algebra) Communicate ▶️ Click to go to the last slide of the tutorial. B A B A
- 22. Slide28 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 State and walk through a relevant Relationship from allowed knowledge State what quantities, if any, are Equal, and why State what quantities, if any, are Altered or different, and why So what? Is there any quantity to analyze Next? Why? +x A B 0 A B A B During the race, Alice and Bob travel for the same amount of time because (a) they start running at the same time and (b) the race ends for both runners at the same time. Neatly and graphically represent Situation(s) Graphically represent Quantities and their relationships Identify relevant allowed starting point (in)Equation(s) ANalyze (which does not necessarily mean just algebra) Communicate ?: vs. B A B A
- 23. Slide7 A SiQuENC for developing and communicating REASoNing for AP Physics 1 and 2 “ ” Larkin, McDermott, Simon, & Simon (1980) Van Heuvelen (1991) Etkina, Gentile, & Van Heuvelen (2014) Polya (1945) Einstein replying to Hadamard (1945) Reif, Larkin, & Brackett (1976) Young and Freedman (2016) Knight, Jones, & Field (2015) Visnjic This work (2018) “(A) . . . The psychical entities which seem to serve as elements in thought are certain signs and more or less clear images which can be ‘voluntarily’ reproduced and combined. . . . (B) . . . Conventional words or other signs have to be sought for laboriously only in a secondary stage, when the mentioned associative play is sufficiently established and can be reproduced at will. (C) . . . The play with the mentioned elements is aimed to be analogous to certain logical connections one is searching for.” McNeill, Lizotte, Krajcik, & Marx (2006) SiQuENC REASoN Toulmin (1958) “claim . . . evidence . . . reasoning” “Prepare . . . Solve . . . Assess” “(a) Words . . . (b) Pictorial representation . . . (c) Physical representation . . . (d) Math representation” “Step 1: Sketch and translate . . . Step 2: Simplify and diagram . . . Step 3: Represent mathematically . . . Step 4: Solve and evaluate” “(i) . . . sketch . . . . (ii) Selecting tentatively a set of principles to use, . . . Construct an abstract problem representation containing physical entities (iii) . . . rerepresent the problem as a set of equations.” “Identify and set up . . . Execute . . . Evaluate” “(1) Description: List . . . Given and desired information. . . . Draw a diagram . . . (2) Planning: Select the basic relations pertinent for solving the problem and outline how they are to be used. . . . (3) Implementation: Execute . . . (4) Checking: Check . . . Preceding steps . . . and that the final answer makes sense.” I am grateful to Dr. Visnjic for a valuable discussion in 2017 that provided a quick orientation in PER-based methods. Heller & Heller (1995) “sketch . . . Diagram in terms of simple physical objects and essential physical quantities. . . . Plan the Solution: . . . translate the physics description into a set of equations . . . Execute the plan . . . Evaluate the Answer” D So, Q, C Unless R Since W On account of B Understanding the problem . . . Draw a figure. Introduce suitable notation. . . . Devising a plan . . . Carrying out the plan . . . Can you check the result?” Please send questions to DLIAO@DAVID LIAO.COM

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