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    BİLGİ-ENGR 400 FALL 2015 P2 Professionalism and Code of Ethics

    Published: July 18, 2018

    BİLGİ-ENGR 400 FALL 2015 P2 Professionalism and Code of Ethics

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    BİLGİ-ENGR 400 FALL 2015 P2 Professionalism and Code of Ethics

    • 1. ETHICS IN ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 2-1 Chapter 2 Professionalism, Engineering Profession and Codes of Ethics ETHICS IN ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE ORAL ANSEN
    • 2. Chapter 2 Outline Chapter 2 Outline pProfessionalism nConflict of Interest – Ethical Conflict pEngineering Profession pCodes of Ethics pExamples from Current Codes of Ethics of Engineers 2-2
    • 3. Professionalism Professionalism pProfessional is one who is “duly qualified” in a specific field pCharacteristics of professionalism nExtensive intellectual training (education) nSpecialized knowledge nSkills vital to society nCommand on service provided nAutonomy, self-regulated nGoverned by a code of ethics 2-3
    • 4. Engineering Profession Engineering Profession pEngineering meets all the definitions of a profession pEngineering is a profession that put power and materials to work for the benefit of humankind pEngineers provide ways to improve the quality of life 2-4
    • 5. Engineering Profession 1-5 Engineering Profession pEngineers are highly skilled and versatile professionals pEngineers are problem solvers nProblem solving is structured (planned) nSeveral different methodologies are possible but the outcome is similar pThis combination makes the professional engineer different from both the technologist and the inventor
    • 6. Top 10 Skills of an Engineer Top 10 Skills of an Engineer 1.Problem-solving skills 2.Effective communication skills 3.Highly ethical and professional behavior 4.Open mind and positive attitude 5.Proficiency in math and science 6.Technical skills 7.Motivation for “lifelong learning” 8.Knowledge of business strategies and management practices 9.Computer literacy 10.Understanding of world affairs and cultures R. Hornsey 1-6
    • 7. Engineering Profession Engineering Profession pHow we view ourselves: nEngineers are problem solvers nEngineering is enjoyable prefers to the morale of a group nEngineering benefits people, provides a public service nEngineering provides the most freedom of all professions (Florman, 1976) nEngineering is an honorable profession 2-7
    • 8. Engineering Profession pHow the public views engineering: nThe engineer’s role pEngineers as utilitarians pEngineers as positivists pApplied physical scientists nThis role does not work in harmony with “social science” inclination of the public nRational, pragmatic, logical and systematic approaches to problem solving tend to alienate (separate) the engineer from the public Engineering Profession 2-8
    • 9. Conflict of Interest – Ethical Conflict Conflict of Interest – Ethical Conflict p“ … arises when employees at any level have private interests that are substantial enough to interfere with their job duties; that is, when their private interests lead them, or might reasonably lead them, to make decisions or act in ways that are detrimental to their employer’s interests.” W. M. Shaw and V. Barry, Moral Issues in Business 2-9
    • 10. Conflict of Interest – Ethical Conflict Conflict of Interest – Ethical Conflict pConflicts of interest present a constant challenge to the engineer, as well as other professionals pCan arise in most professional activities pExamples of what do the professional codes of ethics say regarding conflicts of interest are stated in this chapter 2-10
    • 11. Codes of Ethics 2-11 pSome professional organizations have addressed the complexity of moral issues in their fields by developing codes of ethics pProfessional codes of ethics consist primarily of principles of responsibility that define how to promote the public good Codes of Ethics
    • 12. Codes of Ethics 2-12 pCodes of ethics express the rights, duties, and obligations of the members of the profession pProvide a framework (not a recipe) for ethical judgment for a professional pExpress commitment to ethical conduct shared by members pDefine roles and responsibilities of professionals Codes of Ethics
    • 13. Codes of Ethics 2-13 pCodes of ethics are norms coordinating actions nhelp members of the discipline to coordinate their actions or activities and to establish the public's trust of the discipline nmany different disciplines, institutions, and professions have norms for behavior that suit their particular aims and goals nfor instance, ethical norms govern conduct including medicine, law, engineering, business and scientific research Codes of Ethics
    • 14. Codes of Ethics 2-14 pCodes of ethics are not only for professionals to protect themselves, but they are for protecting the public, as well pIf codes belonging to a group begins to protect the rights of the group, then that group starts to show organized crime characteristics Stephan A. Unger, Controlling Technology: Ethics and the Responsible Engineer, 1982 Codes of Ethics
    • 15. Codes of Ethics 2-15 Code of ethics is not something you post on the bulletin board. It is something that you live with, every day. Codes of Ethics
    • 16. Codes of Ethics 2-16 pConsequences of breaking the codes of ethics nEthical standards are not necessarily legally prosecuted when broken nYou lose credibility in your field pFrom peers and & elite organizations nMay be sued in the form of wrongdoings, personal injury law suits Codes of Ethics
    • 17. Codes of EthicsHistory - World 2-17 pBC 1800 : Hammurabi rules (medicine) pBC 460-370 : Hippocrates pledge p1793 : Thomas Percival, Manchester (The first modern medical ethic code) p1846 : Acceptance of medical ethic codes in USA p1910 : The acceptance of first business ethic codes in England by Civil Eng. Institute p1912 : The first written manuscript by The American Inst. of Electrical Engineers p1947 : Basic codes of Ethics, NSPE (National Society of Professional Engineers) P.L.Alger, N.A. Christensen, S.P. Olmsted, Ethical Problems in Eng., John Wiley and Sons, NY, 1965 Codes of Ethics History - World
    • 18. Codes of EthicsHistory - World 2-18 p1951: FEANI, by German and French engineers Today in 27 countries European Engineering degree (EUR-ING), can only be hold by the owner of the degree, if the ethic codes of FEANI is followed p1955: Acceptance of basic ethic codes in USA by 82 engineering organizations p1985: WFEO Environmental engineering ethic codes p1992: The Inst.of Eng. of Australia accepted ethic codes p1995: Ethics Center by NSF P.L.Alger, N.A. Christensen, S.P. Olmsted, Ethical Problems in Eng., John Wiley and Sons, NY, 1965 Codes of Ethics History - World
    • 19. Engineering Codes of EthicsHistory - Turkey 2-19 p1956: A notice is prepared by TMMOB (Türk Mühendis ve Mimar Odaları Birliği), dated 1947 from which “Engineers Code of Conduct” (Mühendislerin Ahlak Kaideleri) have been published p2004: A “Code of Ethics for Engineers” is prepared and approved by TMMOB Engineering Codes of Ethics History - Turkey
    • 20. Engineering Codes of Ethics Current 2-20 pCurrent codes of ethics for various engineering fields are available for engineers at: http://onlineethics.org/Resources/ethc odes/EnglishCodes.aspx pSome basic examples are given on the coming slides Engineering Codes of Ethics Current
    • 21. Engineering Codes of Ethics Aim & Goal 2-21 pAim nTo prevent the mistakes to be done, and to serve as a guide for the profession in order to serve to humanity in a better way pGoal nAcquiring skill in practical ethical reasoning in a professional domain nDeveloping the ethical autonomy, i.e. the ability and the habit to think rationally and critically about the ethical questions Engineering Codes of Ethics Aim & Goal
    • 22. Engineering Codes of Ethics Method 2-22 pMethod nImportance of professional knowledge and role-specific professional obligations in resolving professional ethical conflicts nGeneral principles necessary to understand and apply professional codes of ethics nCase based reasoning with applying and interpreting codes Engineering Codes of Ethics Method
    • 23. Engineering Codes of Ethics Roles 2-23 pShared Standards pSupport to act ethically pGuidance concerning obligations pInspiration pEducation and Mutual Understanding pPrevention and Discipline pContributing to the Professional Image Engineering Codes of Ethics Roles
    • 24. Engineering Codes of Ethics Roles 2-24 pShared Standards nProfessions establish clear standards nShared standards throughout the profession has values pSupport nCodes give positive support to those seeking to act ethically; “I am bound by the code of ethics of my profession to …” pGuidance nGive helpful guidance concerning the main obligations of engineers Engineering Codes of Ethics Roles
    • 25. Engineering Codes of Ethics Roles 2-25 pInspiration nReflect profession’s positive statement of intent - positive ethical practices pEducation and Mutual Understanding nHelp develop common understanding and experience pDeterrence and Discipline nProfessional societies do suspend members based on violations pContributing to the Professional Image nPositive image to the public of a committed professional Engineering Codes of Ethics Roles
    • 26. Engineering Codes of Ethics 2-26 pNo code can be totally comprehensive and cover all possible ethical situations that a professional engineer is likely to encounter pRather, codes serve as a starting point for ethical decision making pHaving looked at some ideas about what codes of ethics are and how they function, let’s look more closely at some sample engineering codes of ethics Engineering Codes of Ethics
    • 27. NCEES Model Rules ofProfessional Conduct 2-27 pPreamble pEngineer’s Obligations to Society pEngineer’s Obligations to Employers and Clients pEngineer’s Obligations to Other Engineers NCEES: "National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying" in the USA http://www.ncees.org/ NCEES Model Rules of Professional Conduct
    • 28. The Preamble 2-28 pPurpose is to “ … safeguard life, health, and property, to promote the public welfare, and to maintain a high standard of integrity and practice.” The Preamble
    • 29. Engineer’s Obligation to Society Engineer’s Obligation to Society pBroad context of responsibility n“While performing services, the engineer’s foremost responsibility is to the public welfare” n“Engineers shall approve only those designs that safeguard the life, health, welfare, and property of the public while conforming to accepted engineering standards” 2-29
    • 30. Engineer’s Obligation to Society Engineer’s Obligation to Society pWhistle blowing n“If an engineer’s professional judgment is overruled resulting in danger to the life, health, welfare, or property of the public, the engineer shall notify his/her employer or client and any appropriate authority” 2-30
    • 31. Engineer’s Obligation to Society Engineer’s Obligation to Society pTruth in duties n“Engineers shall be objective and truthful in professional reports, statements, or testimonies and shall provide all pertinent supporting information relating to such items” n“Engineers shall not express a professional opinion publicly unless it is based upon knowledge of the facts and a competent evaluation of the subject matter” 2-31
    • 32. Engineer’s Obligation to Society Engineer’s Obligation to Society pThe duty of full disclosure n“Engineers shall not express professional opinion on subject matters for which they are motivated or paid, unless they explicitly identify the parties on whose behalf they are expressing the opinion and reveal the parties’ interest in the matters” 2-32
    • 33. Engineer’s Obligation to Society Engineer’s Obligation to Society p“Clean Hands” Rule n“Engineers shall not enter business ventures or permit their names or their firm’s names to be used by any persons or firm which is engaging in dishonest, fraudulent, or illegal business practice” 2-33
    • 34. Engineer’s Obligation to Society Engineer’s Obligation to Society pFinal obligation to society n“Engineers who have knowledge of possible violation of any of the rules listed in this and the following two parts shall provide pertinent information and assist the state board in reaching final determination of the possible violation” 2-34
    • 35. Engineer’s Obligations toEmployers and Clients Engineer’s Obligations to Employers and Clients pProfessional competence n“Engineers shall not undertake technical assignments for which they are not qualified” n“Engineers shall approve or seal only those plans or designs that deal with subjects in which they are competent and which have been prepared under their direct control and supervision” 2-35
    • 36. Engineer’s Obligations toEmployers and Clients Engineer’s Obligations to Employers and Clients pThe validity of approvals n“Engineers may coordinate an entire project provided that each design component is signed or sealed by the engineer responsible for that design component” 2-36
    • 37. Engineer’s Obligations toEmployers and Clients Engineer’s Obligations to Employers and Clients pConfidentiality requirement n“Engineers shall not reveal professional information without the employer’s or client’s prior consent except as authorized or required by law” 2-37
    • 38. Engineer’s Obligations toEmployers and Clients Engineer’s Obligations to Employers and Clients pConflict of interest n“Engineers shall not solicit or accept direct or indirect considerations, financial or otherwise, from contractors, their agents, or other parties while performing work for employers or clients” n“Engineers shall disclose to their employers or clients potential conflicts of interest or any other circumstances that could influence or appear to influence their professional judgment or their service quality” 2-38
    • 39. Engineer’s Obligations toEmployers and Clients Engineer’s Obligations to Employers and Clients pFull disclosure n“An engineer shall not accept financial or other compensation from more than one party for services rendered on one project unless the details are fully disclosed and agreed by all parties” 2-39
    • 40. Engineer’s Obligations toEmployers and Clients Engineer’s Obligations to Employers and Clients pGovernment conflicts of interest n“To avoid conflicts of interest, engineers shall not solicit or accept a professional contract from a governmental body on which a principal or officer of their firm serves as a member. An engineer who is a principal or employee of a private firm and who serves as a member of a governmental body shall not participate in decisions relating to the professional services solicited or provided by the firm to the governmental body” 2-40
    • 41. Engineer’s Obligations to Other Engineers Engineer’s Obligations to Other Engineers pObligation to potential employers n“Engineers shall not misrepresent or permit misrepresentation of their or any of their associate’s academic or professional qualifications. They shall not misrepresent their level of responsibility or the complexity of prior assignments. Pertinent facts relating to employers, employees, associates, joint ventures, or past accomplishments shall not be misrepresented when soliciting employment or business” 2-41
    • 42. Engineer’s Obligations to Other Engineers Engineer’s Obligations to Other Engineers pConflicts of interest n“Engineers shall not directly or indirectly give, solicit, or receive any gift or commission, or other valuable consideration, in order to obtain work, and shall not make contribution to any political body with intent of influencing the award of contract by governmental body” 2-42
    • 43. Engineer’s Obligations to Other Engineers Engineer’s Obligations to Other Engineers pReputations of other engineers n“Engineers shall not attempt to injure, maliciously or falsely, directly or indirectly, the professional reputations, prospects, practice or employment of other engineers, nor indiscriminately criticize the work of other engineers” pCriticize cautiously and objectively with respect to the person’s professional status 2-43
    • 44. Engineering as Social Experimentation Engineering as Social Experimentation pAll products of technology present some potential dangers, and thus engineering is an inherently risky activity pIn order to emphasize this fact and help in exploring its ethical implications, we suggest that engineering should be viewed as an experimental process pIt is not, of course, an experiment conducted solely in a laboratory under controlled conditions pRather, it is an experiment on a social scale involving human subjects Ethics in Engineering, Martin, M.W., Schinzinger, McGraw-Hill, 1996 2-44
    • 45. Social Accountability 2-45 Ethics + Competence = Win – Win Companies that are dedicated to doing the right thing have a written commitment to social responsibility, and act on it consistently are more profitable than those who don’t. Ethics Resource Centre , Washington DC. Social Accountability
    • 46. Social Accountability StandardSA8000 2-46 pIt is one of the world’s first auditable social accountability certification standards applying labor and human rights criteria across all industrial sectors pIt takes a management systems approach by setting out the structures and procedures that companies must adopt in order to ensure that compliance with the standard is continuously reviewed (SA8000 Standard: 2014 revision) Social Accountability Standard SA8000
    • 47. SA8000 2-47 pWhy was SA8000 developed? nObjective is to ensure ethical sourcing and production of goods and services nConsumers concerned about whether products have been manufactured under conditions of violation of human rights, child labor and discrimination nManagement of many companies cannot adequately deal with the numerous demands imposed by labor laws, codes of conduct of individual companies and their stakeholders SA8000
    • 48. SA8000 2-48 pReleased in October 1997, SA8000 is the first global ethical standard for improving working conditions pBased on the principles of thirteen international human rights conventions (including Int. Labor Organization, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UN Convention), it is a tool to help apply these norms to practical work-life situations SA8000
    • 49. SA8000 2-49 pTo certify conformance with SA8000, every facility seeking certification must be audited nThus auditors will visit factories and assess corporate practice on a wide range of issues and evaluate the state of a company’s management systems, necessary to ensure ongoing acceptable practices nOnce an organization has implemented any necessary improvements, it can earn a certificate attesting to its compliance with SA8000 SA8000
    • 50. SA8000 2-50 pIt is applicable to all companies regardless of scale, industry and location pEvaluates a company’s commitment to ensuring a fair and equitable working environment and transparent business practices pThis climate means that an organization will be called upon more and more to demonstrate its social responsibility SA8000
    • 51. SA8000 2-51 pWhat are the benefits of SA8000? nAchieve best practice in ethical employment, trading and operations nEngage and motivate your employees with improved morale nIntroduce greater transparency to the way you run your business nMaintain existing business and attract new customers and investors nGain recognition as an socially accountable organization SA8000
    • 52. SA8000 2-52 pThis certification provides a public report of good practice to consumers, buyers, and other companies and is intended to be a significant milestone in improving workplace conditions SA8000
    • 53. WFEO Model Code of Ethics 2-53 pThe WFEO Model Code of Ethics is designed to assist member organizations in guiding ethical behavior by formulating their own Codes of Ethics WFEO: The World Federation of Engineering Organizations http://www.wfeo.net/wp-content/uploads/WFEO_MODEL_CODE_OF_ETHICS_Final.pdf WFEO Model Code of Ethics
    • 54. WFEO Model Code of Ethics 2-54 pAs engineering professionals, we use our knowledge and skills for the benefit of world, in order to create engineering solutions for a sustainable future nIn doing so, we strive to serve our communities ahead of any personal or sectional interests WFEO Model Code of Ethics
    • 55. WFEO Model Code of Ethics 2-55 pTo do so successfully requires ethical behavior nIn line with our obligations as professionals, we wish to ensure that the choices that we make as engineers enable us to do things which are ‘good’ nIn addition, we wish to ensure that we do these ‘good things’ in a manner which is ‘right’ WFEO Model Code of Ethics
    • 56. WFEO Model Code of Ethics 2-56 pA Code of Ethics must do two things. nIt must provide guidance on the Values we must adhere to in professional practice if we are to make the ‘good’ choices referred to above nIt must set out the Principles we must follow in applying those values, in order to do things in a manner which is right WFEO Model Code of Ethics
    • 57. WFEO Model Code of Ethics 2-57 In the course of engineering practice, professional engineers will: 1. Demonstrate Integrity 1.1 Refrain from fraudulent, corrupt or criminal practices 1.2 Be objective and truthful 1.3 Practice fairly and with good faith towards clients, colleagues and others 2. Practice Competently 2.1 Practice in a careful and diligent manner in accordance with their areas of competence 2.2 Practice in accordance with accepted engineering practices, standards and codes 2.3 Maintain and strive to enhance the body of knowledge in which they practice WFEO Model Code of Ethics
    • 58. WFEO Model Code of Ethics 2-58 3. Exercise Leadership 3.1 Practice so as to enhance the quality of life in society 3.2 Strive to contribute to the advancement of the body of knowledge within which they practice, and to the profession in general 3.3 Foster the public’s understanding of technical issues and the role of engineering 4. Protect the Natural and Built Environment 4.1 Create and implement engineering solutions for a sustainable future 4.2 Be mindful of the economic, societal and environmental consequences of actions or projects 4.3 Promote and protect the health, safety and well-being of the community and the environment WFEO Model Code of Ethics
    • 59. NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers  2-59 pNSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers is very detailed pThe NSPE Board of Ethical Review applies this code in making judgments on cases pThese judgments serve to educate its members on what the NSPE considers ethical practice pThe code was revised several times NSPE: National Society of Professional Engineers http://onlineethics.org/Resources/ethcodes/EnglishCodes/9972.aspx NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers
    • 60. NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers  2-60 pHas three components: 1.Fundamental Canons (principles) pState the basic components of ethical engineering 2.Rules of Practice pClarify and specify in detail the fundamental canons of ethics in engineering 3.Professional Obligations pElaborate the obligations that engineers have NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers
    • 61. NSPE Fundamental Canons of Ethics 2-61 pEngineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duties, shall: 1.Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2.Perform services only in areas of their competence. 3.Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. 4.Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5.Avoid deceptive acts. 6.Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputation, and usefulness of the profession. NSPE Fundamental Canons of Ethics
    • 62. ASME Code of Ethics of Engineers -Fundamental Principles 2-62 pASME, founded as the "American Society of Mechanical Engineers" pEngineers uphold and advance the integrity, honor and dignity of the engineering profession by: nUsing their knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human welfare nBeing honest and impartial, and serving with fidelity the public, their employers and clients, nStriving to increase the competence and prestige of the engineering profession. ASME Code of Ethics of Engineers - Fundamental Principles
    • 63. ASME Code of Ethics of Engineers - Fundamental Canons 2-63 1.Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties. 2.Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their competence. 3.Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers and shall provide opportunities for the professional development of those engineers under their supervision. ASME Code of Ethics of Engineers - Fundamental Canons
    • 64. ASME Code of Ethics of Engineers - Fundamental Canons 2-64 4.Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of interest. 5.Engineers shall build their professional reputations on the merit of their services and shall not compete unfairly with others. 6.Engineers shall associate only with reputable persons or organizations. 7.Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. ASME Code of Ethics of Engineers - Fundamental Canons
    • 65. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) - Code of Ethics 2-65 pWe, the members of the IEEE, in recognition of the importance of our technologies in affecting the quality of life throughout the world, and in accepting a personal obligation to our profession, its members and the communities we serve, do hereby commit ourselves to the highest ethical and professional conduct and agree: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) - Code of Ethics
    • 66. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) - Code of Ethics 2-66 1.to accept responsibility in making decisions consistent with the safety, health, and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment; 2.to avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest whenever possible, and to disclose them to affected parties when they do exist; 3.to be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates based on available data; 4.to reject bribery in all its forms; 5.to improve the understanding of technology; its appropriate application, and potential consequences; 6.to maintain and improve our technical competence and to undertake technological tasks for others only if qualified by training or experience, or after full disclosure of pertinent limitations; Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) - Code of Ethics
    • 67. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) - Code of Ethics 2-67 7.to seek, accept, and offer honest criticism of technical work, to acknowledge and correct errors, and to credit properly the contributions of others; 8.to treat fairly all persons and to not engage in acts of discrimination based on race, religion, gender, disability, age, national origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression; 9.to avoid injuring others, their property, reputation, or employment by false or malicious action; 10.to assist colleagues and co-workers in their professional development and to support them in following this code of ethics. http://www.ieee.org/about/corporate/governance/p7-8.html Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) - Code of Ethics
    • 68. Computer Code of Ethics Computer Code of Ethics pComputers have rapidly become a global tool in engineering and business pComputers have brought great benefits to society pUnfortunately, computers have been also misused, leading to serious ethical issues pThe engineer’s roles as designer, manager, and user of computers bring with them a responsibility to help foster the ethical use of computers 7-68
    • 69. Computer Code of Ethics Computer Code of Ethics pCategories of computer ethics problems: nComputers as a tool for unethical behavior, for example, computers can be used: pTo steal money from a bank pTo make privacy more difficult to protect pTo hack into a database pTo issue computer viruses pTo breach copyright (music, movies, or software, etc.) nComputers as an engineering tool, when used improperly as design tools and as components integrated into engineered systems pFor example, software can’t be a substitute for good engineering judgment always 7-69
    • 70. Computer Code of Ethics Computer Code of Ethics pTo aid with decision making regarding these and other computer-related ethics issues, many organizations have developed codes of ethics for computer use pThe purposes of ethical codes and the way in which codes of ethics function are equally true for codes related to computer use (See Chapter-2) 7-70
    • 71. Association of Computer Machinery (ACM) - Code of Ethics 2-71 pACM (Association of Computer Machinery) General Moral Imperatives nContribute to society and human well-being nAvoid harm to others nBe honest and trustworthy nBe fair and take action not to discriminate nHonor property rights including copyrights and patents nGive proper credit for intellectual property nRespect the privacy of others nHonor Confidentiality http://www.acm.org/about/code-of-ethics Association of Computer Machinery (ACM) - Code of Ethics
    • 72. Biomedical Engineering - Code of Ethics 2-72 pWhy are ethics important in biomedical engineering? nAny medical fields deal with serious and personal issues pIntegrity and confidentiality are necessary to allow engineering to conduct research with patients and for results to be deemed relevant and progressive nAs technology advances so does our capabilities in engineering and medical fields pThese capabilities can allow us to achieve things people may deem as science crossing into nature or religion/beliefs Biomedical Engineering - Code of Ethics
    • 73. Biomedical Engineering - Code of Ethics 2-73 pProfessional Ethics nBeing honest and impartial nNot publishing false reports pPatient Ethics nConfidentiality nFull disclosure pNatural & Human ethics nNot “playing God” nNot interfering with natural life and/or nature nNot crossing the line between improving quality of life and changing life Biomedical Engineering - Code of Ethics
    • 74. Biomedical Engineering Society - Code of Ethics 2-74 pBiomedical Engineering Professional Obligations nBiomedical engineers in the fulfillment of their professional engineering duties shall: 1.Use their knowledge, skills, and abilities to enhance the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2.Strive by action, example, and influence to increase the competence, prestige, and honor of the biomedical engineering profession. pBiomedical Engineering Health Care Obligations nBiomedical engineers involved in health care activities shall: 1.Regard responsibility toward and rights of patients, including those of confidentiality and privacy, as their primary concern. 2.Consider the larger consequences of their work in regard to cost, availability, and delivery of health care. Biomedical Engineering Society - Code of Ethics
    • 75. Biomedical Engineering Society - Code of Ethics 2-75 pBiomedical Engineering Research Obligations nBiomedical engineers involved in research shall: 1.Comply fully with legal, ethical, institutional, governmental, and other applicable research guidelines, respecting the rights of and exercising the responsibilities to colleagues, human and animal subjects, and the scientific and general public. 2.Publish and/or present properly credited results of research accurately and clearly. pBiomedical Engineering Training Obligations nBiomedical engineers entrusted with the responsibilities of training others shall: 1.Honor the responsibility not only to train biomedical engineering students in proper professional conduct in performing research and publishing results, but also to model such conduct before them. 2.Keep training methods and content free from inappropriate influence from special interests. http://bmes.org Biomedical Engineering Society - Code of Ethics
    • 76. Engineering Pledge Engineering Pledge pAs a Professional Engineer, I dedicate my professional knowledge and skill to the advancement and betterment of human welfare. pI pledge: nTo give the utmost of performance; nTo participate in none but honest enterprise; nTo live and work according to the laws of man and the highest standards of professional conduct; 2-76
    • 77. Engineering Pledge - cont’d Engineering Pledge - cont’d nTo place service before profit, the honor and standing of the profession before personal advantage, and the public welfare above all other considerations. pIn humility and with need for Divine Guidance, I make this pledge. 1954 by NSPE to be used in Graduation Ceremonies 2-77
    • 78. Conclusions Conclusions In those civilizations where a consensus had not been achieved with respect to specific ethical duties in general, no law could be able to prevent chaos. John W. Gardner, AIEE Professional Ethics, 2000 2-78
    • 79. Conclusions Conclusions pEthics plays a very important role in the functioning of our society and to an extent the workplace pUsing the fundamental engineering canons problems can be solved successfully pThrough the engineering canons ethical issues and the proper ethical practice in engineering would be elevated with minimal unethical activities taking place 2-79
    • 80. Conclusions Conclusions pWe must search for the truth by using our creative thinking endlessly pBut in application we must respect to; nHuman life nFree will nHuman honor nSocial responsibility nFamily nCultures pGoal: Health and Welfare of Humankind 2-80