Chapter 1 Outline1-3 Chapter 1 Outline pWhy Study Engineering Ethics? pWhat is Ethics? pPersonal and Professional Ethics pEthics and Law pMorality nEthics and Morality pScience pEngineering nEngineering and Morality pEngineering Ethics
Why StudyEngineering Ethics?pThe Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster happened on January 28th, 1986 nhttp://edition.cnn.com/videos/us/2013/06/03/ vault-backstory-1986-challenger-disaster.cnn Why Study Engineering Ethics? 1-5
Why StudyEngineering Ethics?pThe Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster happened on February 1st, 2003 nThe damage occurred during its launch on Jan. 16, when foam from the fuel tank's insulation fell off and hit Columbia's left wing, tearing a hole in it, but went undetected nAfter a successful 16-day trip, during re-entry, the hole in a heat-resistant reinforced carbon panel on Columbia's left wing leading edge allowed super-hot atmospheric gases into the orbiter's wing, leading to its destruction Why Study Engineering Ethics? 1-6
Why StudyEngineering Ethics?pThere is an increased awareness of its importance to engineers due to publicity surrounding recent high profile engineering failures pDecisions made by engineers can impact public health, safety, business practices and politics pEngineers should be aware of moral implications as they make decisions in the workplace Why Study Engineering Ethics? 1-7
Why StudyEngineering Ethics?pEthical problems in engineering are often complex and involve conflicting ethical principles pEngineers must be able to intelligently resolve these conflicts and reach a defensible decision Why Study Engineering Ethics? 1-8
Why StudyEngineering Ethics?pThe study of ethics can help engineers to develop a moral autonomy: nThe ability to think critically and independently about moral issues nThe ability to apply this moral thinking to situations that arise in the course of professional engineering practice Why Study Engineering Ethics? 1-9
Why StudyEngineering Ethics?1-10 pBetter to be prepared than surprised pLegal aspects pComplexity pNot black and white pCan affect your job pSocrates: “Ethics consists of knowing what we ought to do, and such knowledge can be taught.” Why Study Engineering Ethics?
Why StudyEngineering Ethics?pWe are in need of ethical awareness!!! nIn the 21st century the rate of the applications of the new inventions in different areas are very fast nIt is not always possible to reach the pace of technological developments by the pace of social and moral considerations relating to them nThis is especially very important in engineering, bio-sciences and medicine Why Study Engineering Ethics? 1-11
Why StudyEngineering Ethics?pWe are in need of ethical awareness because; “From a good decision can benefit millions, while an unethical one can cripple (damage) our future.” http://www.globalethics.org Why Study Engineering Ethics? 1-12
What is Ethics?1-13 What is Ethics? pActing ethically is very much like fighting an addiction pThe addict is never entirely free of the struggle pThe history of ethical thought is, in this regard, a record of attempts to promote, or to dictate, communal behavior in order to ensure stability and harmony within the social group Ethics Workbook 1999
What is Ethics?1-14 What is Ethics? pAristotle defines ethics, as ”science dealing with character” pIt is the science studying ideal human character and activities
What is Ethics?1-15 What is Ethics? pEthics is about how we meet the challenge of doing the right thing when that will cost more than we want to pay The Josephson Institute of Ethics pEthics, like the gyroscope, is a mechanism that must be used consciously and continuously to maintain direction, stability, and equilibrium Ethics Workbook 1999
What is Ethics?1-16 What is Ethics? pEthics are concerned with things like what is meant by: nRight and wrong nGood and bad nFair and unfair nAllowed and not allowed pYour own ethics depend on your character nEthics influence what you do and how you behave to others
What is Ethics?1-17 What is Ethics? pEthics is simply the study and application of moral standards pBasic moral principles involve: nFocus on the well-being of others nGo beyond self-interest and personal goals nUniversal truths, constants nImpartiality (being neutral, objective and fair)
What is Ethics?1-18 What is Ethics? pStandards of behavior that tell us how human beings ought to act in the many situations in which they find themselves – as friends, parents, children, citizens, teachers, professionals, businesspeople, and so on
What is Ethics?1-19 What is Ethics? pEthical behavior, which is simply finding the balance between self-interest and group responsibility, is largely, but not entirely, learned behavior standing in opposition to an instinct
What is Ethics?1-20 What is Ethics? pEthics: Principles for guiding decision making and reconciling conflicting values nPeople may disagree on ‘ethics’ because it is based on people's personal value systems nWhat one person considers to be good or right may be considered bad or wrong by another person
What is Ethics?1-21 What is Ethics? pThe concept of ethics assumes that there exist; nnorms, nprinciples, nvalues, that have, are, and always will provide the foundation for a good life
What is Ethics?1-22 What is Ethics? pThese norms, principles, and values; nDo not come from a religious, moral, political, or social source, nBut are the product of rational reflection upon human existence, nExist independent of any religious, moral, political, or social system pi.e., are universally true
What is Ethics?1-23 What is Ethics? pEthics - set of justified moral principles of obligation, rights, and ideals pEthics - particular beliefs or attitudes concerning morality pEthics - an activity of; nunderstanding moral values, nresolving moral issues, njustifying moral judgments.
Ethics is Not…1-24 Ethics is Not… pEthics is not the same as feelings nFeelings provide important information for our ethical choices nSome people have highly developed habits that make them feel bad when they do something wrong, but many people feel good even though they are doing something wrong nOften our feelings will tell us it is uncomfortable to do the right thing if it is hard
Ethics is Not…1-25 Ethics is Not… pEthics is not religion nSome people are not religious, but ethics applies to everyone nMost religions do advocate high ethical standards but sometimes do not address all the types of problems we face
Ethics is Not…1-26 Ethics is Not… pEthics is not following the law nA good system of law does incorporate many ethical standards, but law can deviate from what is ethical nLaw can become ethically corrupt, as some totalitarian regimes have made it nLaw can be a function of power alone and designed to serve the interests of narrow groups nLaw may have a difficult time designing or enforcing standards in some important areas, and may be slow to address new problems
Ethics is Not…1-27 Ethics is Not… pEthics is not following culturally accepted norms nSome cultures are quite ethical, but others become corrupt, or blind to certain ethical concerns pAs the United States was to slavery before the Civil War n"When in Rome, do as the Romans do" is not a satisfactory ethical standard
Ethics is Not…1-28 Ethics is Not… pEthics is not science nSocial and natural science can provide important data to help us make better ethical choices nBut science alone does not tell us what we ought to do nScience may provide an explanation for what humans are like nBut ethics provides reasons for how humans ought to act nJust because something is scientifically or technologically possible, it may not be ethical to do it
Personal and Professional Ethics1-29 Personal and Professional Ethics pEthical code of conduct nAccepted rules and regulations pPersonal and professional/organizational codes may conflict nYou should strive to focus on the moral principles
Personal and Professional Ethics1-30 Personal and Professional Ethics Ethics is always a personal issue. “Whatever you search for, you can find it in yourself.” ”Her ne ararsan kendinde bulacaksın.” Hacı Bektaş Veli
Personal and Professional Ethics1-31 Personal and Professional Ethics pPersonal ethics – choices on an individual level pAll people can be categorized using the below 5 statements: nI am always ethical nI am mostly ethical nI am somewhat ethical nI am seldom ethical nI am never ethical
Personal and Professional Ethics1-32 Personal and Professional Ethics pProfessional ethics – choices on an organizational level nRegarding relationships between organizations and other organizations, government, and groups of individuals nThe complexity of these relationships often pose dilemmas not encountered in personal ethics
Ethics and Law1-33 Ethics and Law pEthics are considered when making laws pEthics is related but different from and above the law pLaw nThe authority is external nOften represents an ethical minimum pEthics nThe authority is internal nOften represents a standard that exceeds the legal minimum
Ethics and Law1-34 Ethics and Law pLegal and ethical pLegal but not ethical nLaw not yet changed to reflect new realities pEthical but illegal nLaw not yet changed to reflect new realities pIllegal and unethical
Ethics and LawEthics and Law Legal & Ethical Illegal & Unethical Ethical Unethical Legal Illegal Legal & Unethical Illegal & Ethical 1-35
Ethics and Law1-36 Ethics and Law pThere is a moral duty to obey the law pProfessional ethics covers more issues than the law pOne can be unethical without behaving illegal pRare – ethically must resist the law
What is Morality?1-37 What is Morality? pMorality refers to those standards of conduct that apply to everyone rather than only to members of a special group pThese standards are the ones that every rational person wants every other to follow nlike, don’t lie, don’t kill, don’t cheat, keep your promises, don’t steal, etc. C.E. Harris, M. Davis, M. S. Pritchard, M.J. Rabins, Engineering Ethics: What? Why? How? And When?, JEE, April 1996.
Stages of Moral Development1-38 Stages of Moral Development pPre-conventional level nWhatever benefits oneself, or avoids punishment pConventional level nUncritical acceptance of society’s rules pPost-conventional level nMoral autonomy pThey seek to reason and live by general principles pTheir motivation is to do what is morally reasonable for its own sake, maintaining integrity, self-respect, and respect for others
Ethics and Morality1-39 Ethics and Morality pMorality: First-order set of beliefs and practices about how to live a good life pEthics: A second-order, conscious reflection on the adequacy of our moral beliefs
Ethics and Morality1-40 Ethics and Morality pThe terms ethics and morality are often used interchangeably pEthics and morality have the same roots; nEthos means custom and habits from the Greek nMores means manner and customs from the Latin pHowever, there is a distinction between them in philosophy!
Ethics and Morality1-41 Ethics and Morality pMorality – making choices with reasons pEthics – the study of how the choices are made ni.e. “ethics is the study of morality”
Ethics and Morality1-42 Ethics and Morality pStrictly speaking; nMorality is used to refer to what we would call moral conduct nEthics is used to refer to the formal study of moral conduct pEthics is also often called moral philosophy
What is Science? 1-43 What is Science? pThe intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment From the New Oxford dictionary pScience is the discovery of the unknown
What is Engineering? 1-44 What is Engineering? pIt is systematics of thinking pIt is a process of facing a need, through a project in a; nfunctional, neconomic, naesthetic, nqualified, nsustainable and technically standard way, that has to be finalized in a given time Ü. Garih, III. Ulusal Tesisat Mühendisliği Kongresi ve Sergisi, İzmir, 1997 MMO Yayın No:203/3
Scientists and Engineers 1-45 Scientists and Engineers pScientists study world as it is, engineers create world that has never been. Theodore von Karman You can ANALYZE PAST. You have to DESIGN FUTURE. ENGINEERS
Engineering and Morality1-46 Engineering and Morality pEngineers must be aware of nEnvironmental problems p3R’s: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle pEnergy (Bio-mass) pGlobal warming nFood preservation and supply nScience, Engineering and Technology (SET) for sustainable development ne-learning pComputers increase 2 times in 2 years Ethics in using them !!!
Engineering and Morality1-47 Engineering and Morality Engineers must shape their mind for peace. Morality, Tolerance, Mutual Respect, Human Rights/Justice, Dialogue/Debate.
Engineering and Morality1-48 Engineering and Morality Engineers must consider: Equity, Affordability, Accessibility, Quality, Sufficiency.
Engineering Ethics2-49 pEngineering ethics is similar to general ethics, but apply to the specific issues which affect engineering professionals pQuantitatively, engineering is the profession, that affects all of our lives in the greatest extent pThe skill of a surgeon’s hands affects one patient at a time, the judgment of a design engineer can influence hundreds of lives at once Engineering Ethics
Engineering Ethics2-50 pWhenever engineers do anything that is related to the lives of anyone - their choices of action are based on ethics pIn these choices engineers apply their nown moral standards, nmindful of the legal requirements, nusing their personal code of ethics to make the decision R. Turton, R.C. Bailie, W.B. Whiting and J. A. Shaeiwitz, Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Prentice Hall, 1998. Engineering Ethics
Engineering Ethics2-51 Engineering Ethics pEngineering often is based on preventative ethics which depends on two dimensions: nEngineers must be able to think ahead to anticipate possible consequences of their professional actions nEngineers must be able to think effectively about those consequences and decide what is the ‘ethically’ correct manner to handle the situation
Engineering Ethics2-52 Engineering Ethics pEngineering ethics is the study of the moral values, issues, and decisions involved in engineering practice pThe moral values take on forms including: nResponsibilities nIdeals nCharacter traits nSocial policies nRelationships desirable from individuals and corporations engaged in engineering
Engineering Ethics2-53 The concept of “Engineering ethics” is an interdisciplinary discipline involving philosophy, engineering, social sciences, law and management sciences Engineering Ethics
Engineering Ethics1-54 pWhere are we going? nIn order for the enormous advances in science that is seen in this decade to be used for the betterment of humankind, we must hail experts who understand the social and ethical consequences of their research and applications John Slauther (Keynote Address given in the Opening Ceremony 13th IFAC World Congress, 1996.) Engineering Ethics
Engineering Ethics1-55 pWhere are we going? n... the scientist and the engineer who cannot make value judgments, who cannot see beyond the facts, is of limited use and may even be a threat to society nWe must not let the emerging scientific developments and technologies in our laboratories and testing facilities hypnotize us to the point where we fail to consider the moral and social consequences of our advances John Slauther (Keynote Address given in the Opening Ceremony 13th IFAC World Congress, 1996.) Engineering Ethics
Engineering Ethics1-56 pWhere are we going? n... An engineer must know and must be aware of that the final goal in producing or generating the engineering innovations are for the: pHappiness of people pTo increase the societal welfare and the quality of individual life n...Awareness of the social responsibility is the only bridge which will carry the engineer from being only a professional to being human Aykut Köker, 2008 Engineering Ethics
Engineering Ethics1-57 pWhere are we going? nEngineering is related: pTo technology- the application of theoretical findings pTo the relationship of technology to public, social structure, economics and to its marketing nThis broad scale does not exist in any other profession... If we can further include aesthetics and cultural dimension to science and technology, society and economy then; nI believe that, in the 21st century and may be in later centuries, engineering is the most closest candidate profession which can convert earth for good… Aykut Köker, 2008 Engineering Ethics
Ethics Continuum1-58 Ethics Continuum pEthics as an ongoing conversation pWorld changes continually, and we have to interpret/construe it over and over again pWe come back to ideas again and again, finding new meaning in them