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    BİLGİ-ENGR 400 FALL 2015 P3 Understanding Ethical Problems Making Ethical Decisions

    Published: July 18, 2018

    BİLGİ-ENGR 400 FALL 2015 P3 Understanding Ethical Problems Making Ethical Decisions

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    BİLGİ-ENGR 400 FALL 2015 P3 Understanding Ethical Problems Making Ethical Decisions

    • 1. ETHICS IN ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Chapter 3 Understanding Ethical Problems and Making Ethical Decisions ETHICS IN ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE ORAL ANSEN
    • 2. Chapter 3 Outline Chapter 3 Outline pMajor Approaches to Ethics nDescriptive Ethics nNormative (Prescriptive) Ethics nApplied Ethics pEthical Theories nUtilitarianism nDuty Ethics nRights Ethics nVirtue Ethics pEthical Decision Making 3-2
    • 3. Major Approaches to Ethics  Major Approaches to Ethics 1.Descriptive ethics n“What is” pWhat do you or I think is right? 2.Normative (prescriptive) ethics n“What ought to be” pHow should you and I think/act? 3.Applied ethics nHow do you and I take “moral” knowledge and put it into practice? 3-3
    • 4. Descriptive Ethics Descriptive Ethics pMost common cases: nPlagiarism (Stealing) nConfidentiality of data nFaked data nCriticizing colleagues for gain nHolding back, masking data nDestruction of data nNot reporting incident intentionally Burgess and Mullen study 3-4
    • 5. Normative Ethics Normative Ethics pNormative ethics are concerned with the rightness or wrongness of actions pTheory which justifies which acts are morally good or bad pHow should people think? 3-5
    • 6. Norms versus Description Norms versus Description pA norm; what people should do pA description; what people actually do pCultural relativism says that we should accept cultural differences as all equally valid 3-6
    • 7. Slide119 Normative Ethics Societal Normative Systems 3-7 ETHICS LAW MORAL
    • 8. Normative Ethics Normative Ethics pThere are two ways of looking at normative ethics: 1.Teleological approach- argues that the morality of an action depends on the action's outcome pConsequentialism pUtilitarianism 2.Deontological approach – argues that decisions should be made considering duties and rights 3-8
    • 9. Teleological Approach Teleological Approach pConsequentialism nAn action is judged as “good” or “bad” by reference to its outcome pThe value of an action derives solely from the value of its consequences pConsequences tend to outweigh other considerations pUtilitarianism nEthical behavior; if positive outcomes > negative ones nPromotes the greatest good for the greatest number 3-9
    • 10. Deontological Approach Deontological Approach pDeontological approach states that we should identify and use a universal code when making ethical decisions nSome acts themselves are “good” or “bad” no matter what the consequences are nIt is our duty to take right action when we can identify it nDo what is right, determined by rules, laws, prohibitions, and norms regardless of the results 3-10
    • 11. Applied Ethics  Applied Ethics pFields of applied ethics: nEngineering ethics nEthics in science nResearch ethics nEnvironmental ethics nMedical ethics nBioethics nPublic ethics nMedia ethics nPolitical ethics 3-11
    • 12. Applied Ethics  pAll of the mentioned fields of applied ethics have some points in common: nRelationships of power (between scientists and the public, and between scientists & misusers) nRights of individuals (rather than populations) nNotions of responsibility on one or more sides nAttempts to define rules or guidelines to prevent harm nA lack of accurate and definite predictions of outcomes 3-12 Applied Ethics
    • 13. Applied Ethics Applied Ethics pFrom the individual to the wider world pFor example; start with individual scientists, and progress “upward” through: nResearch groups nSubject areas nCommercial/industrial contexts nNational contexts nInternational/global contexts 3-13
    • 14. Applied Ethics pApplied ethics is aimed at the everyday life of the typical person pProfessional ethics is aimed at a person engaged in the practice of a particular profession pEthical theory is the study of ethics at a conceptual level Applied Ethics 3-14
    • 15. Ethical Theories pIn order to develop workable ethical problem-solving techniques, we must first look at several theories of ethics in order to have a framework for decision making pThe relatively large number of theories reflects the complexity of ethical problems and the diversity of approaches that have been developed over the centuries nGreat Greeks (GG3): Aristotle, Socrates, Platon Ethical Theories 3-15
    • 16. Ethical Theories 1.Utilitarianism nCost-Benefit Analysis 2.Duty Ethics 3.Rights Ethics 4.Virtue Ethics Ethical Theories 3-16
    • 17. Utilitarianism pConsiders a balance of good & bad consequences for everyone affected pFocuses on the consequences that actions or policies have on the well-being of all persons directly or indirectly affected by the action or policy pThe principle states: "Of any two actions, the most ethical one will produce the greatest balance of benefits over harms" Utilitarianism 3-17
    • 18. Utilitarianism pThe good of the many outweighs the good of the few, or the one pActions are good if they serve to maximize human well-being pNegatives: nNo emphasis on individuals nMust know what leads to the ‘greater good” Utilitarianism 3-18
    • 19. Utilitarianism – Cost-Benefit Analysis pCost-Benefit analysis is an application of utilitarianism pA tool often used in engineering analysis pIn cost-benefit analysis, the costs of a project are considered, as well as the benefits pOnly those projects with the highest ratio of benefits to costs will be implemented pConsideration of most benefit to the most people outweighs needs of a few individuals Utilitarianism – Cost-Benefit Analysis 3-19
    • 20. Utilitarianism – Cost-Benefit Analysis pNegatives: nNot truly an ethical analysis tool nNot always easy to place a $ sign/value on all benefits nWho gains the benefits? nWho pays the costs? Utilitarianism – Cost-Benefit Analysis 3-20
    • 21. Duty Ethics pThere are duties that should be performed (e.g., duty to treat others fairly, or not to injure others) regardless of whether these acts do the most good or not pThese are universal principles pOnce our duties are recognized, the ethical actions are obvious Duty Ethics 3-21
    • 22. Rights Ethics pPeople have fundamental rights (like life, liberty & property) that others have a duty to respect pEthical action is the one that best protects and respects the moral rights of those affected nEach person has a fundamental right to be respected nActions are good when they respect the rights of individuals Rights Ethics 3-22
    • 23. Rights Ethics pNegatives: nHow do you resolve individual versus group conflicts nDoesn’t account for overall good Rights Ethics 3-23
    • 24. Virtue Ethics pActions are considered right if they support good character traits (virtues) and wrong if they support bad character traits (evils) pGood character virtues are: nresponsibility, honesty, competency, loyalty, caring, trustworthiness, fairness, respect Virtue Ethics 3-24
    • 25. Virtue Ethics pClosely tied to personal honor pWhat is ethical is what develops moral virtues in ourselves and our communities pTo act in ways that benefit both the person possessing them and society pNegatives: nHarder to apply nVirtues should not lead to negative consequences Virtue Ethics 3-25
    • 26. Which Theory to Use? pIn solving ethical problems, we can use all of them; nto analyze a problem from different points of view nto see what result each of the theories gives us pFrequently, the result will be the same even though theories are very different Which Theory to Use? 3-26
    • 27. Ethical Decision Making Ethical Decision Making 3-27 Four Views of Ethical Decision or Behavior
    • 28. Ethical Decision Making p“A decision was wise; neven though it led to disastrous consequences, if the evidence at hand indicated it was the best one to make, pA decision was foolish; neven though it led to the happiest possible consequences, if it was unreasonable to expect those consequences” Herodotus, c.500 BC Ethical Decision Making 3-28
    • 29. Ethical Decision Making Ethical Decision Making pImportant traits in ethical decision making nBe honest nEmploy the highest standards of ethical conduct nPlace service before profit nHonor and standing of the profession, before personal advantage nPlace public welfare above all other considerations 3-29
    • 30. Ethical Decision Making pMaking good ethical decisions requires; nweighing the considerations that should impact our choice of a course of action na trained sensitivity to ethical issues na practiced method for exploring the ethical aspects of a decision Ethical Decision Making 3-30
    • 31. Ethical Decision Making pHaving a method for ethical decision making is absolutely essential pWhen practiced regularly, the method becomes so familiar that we work through it automatically without consulting the specific steps Ethical Decision Making 3-31
    • 32. Ethical Decision Making pThe more different and difficult the ethical choice we face, the more we need to rely on discussion and dialogue with others about the dilemma Ethical Decision Making 3-32
    • 33. Dilemmas Dilemmas pMoral dilemmas are situations in which two or more moral obligations, duties, rights, goods, or ideals come into conflict with one another pIn such situations, only by careful exploration of the problem, aided by the insights and different perspectives of others, can we make good ethical choices 3-33
    • 34. Ethical Decision Making effective managers and leaders are …virtuous whose primary concerns are …“what ought to be” given “what is” …balancing the common and collective good …wise …decisive …reflective …doing right things Ethical Decision Making 3-34
    • 35. Ethical Decision Making ineffective managers and leaders …implement ideas mindlessly whose primary concerns are …doing things right …self-protection …deny responsibility …point the finger of blame at others …one’s desires and wishes Ethical Decision Making 3-35
    • 36. Ethical Decision Making Ethical Decision Making pEthical decision making is; na matter of focus pseeking constantly to do what is right and necessary in the system na matter of time pdevoting excessive amounts of time to doing right things na matter of feeling pputting one’s whole spirit (soul), energy, and conviction into it 3-36
    • 37. Ethical Decision Making - Some Basic Ethical Principles Ethical Decision Making - Some Basic Ethical Principles pMutuality pGeneralizability pCaring pRespect pHonesty 3-37
    • 38. Ethical Decision Making - Some Basic Ethical Principles Ethical Decision Making - Some Basic Ethical Principles pMutuality nAre all parties operating under the same understanding of the rules of engagement? pGeneralizability nDoes a specific action follow a principle of conduct that is applicable to all comparable situations? pCaring nDoes this action evidence authentic concern for the legitimate interests of others? 3-38
    • 39. Ethical Decision Making - Some Basic Ethical Principles Ethical Decision Making - Some Basic Ethical Principles pRespect nDoes this action demonstrate due consideration for the dignity and rights of others? pHonesty nIs this decision and the process leading to it straight-forward and forthright? 3-39
    • 40. Ethical Decision Making - Some Basic Ethical Principles Ethical Decision Making - Some Basic Ethical Principles pAlthough these basic principles constitute the fundamental elements embedded in an ethical decision; these principles do not provide a comprehensive and complete ethical framework for use when managers and leaders engage in the decision- making process 3-40
    • 41. Ethical Decision Making Framework Ethical Decision Making Framework pHow does one decide whether a response is well-reasoned? What criteria apply? Can we reliably judge? pTo resolve we must identify the factors, gather facts, evaluate alternative courses of actions, and arrive at a decision 3-41
    • 42. Ethical Decision Making Framework Ethical Decision Making Framework pRecognize an ethical issue pGet the facts pEvaluate alternative actions/options pMake a decision and test it pAct and reflect on the outcome This framework for thinking ethically is the product of dialogue and debate at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University. Primary contributors include Manuel Velasquez, Dennis Moberg, Michael J. Meyer, Thomas Shanks, Margaret R. McLean, David DeCosse, Claire André, and Kirk O. Hanson. It was last revised in May 2009. 3-42
    • 43. Ethical Decision Making Framework Ethical Decision Making Framework pRecognize an ethical issue nCould this decision or situation be damaging to someone or to some group? nDoes this decision involve a choice between a good and bad alternative, or perhaps between two "goods" or between two "bads"? nIs this issue about more than what is legal or what is most efficient? If so, how? 3-43
    • 44. Ethical Decision Making Framework Ethical Decision Making Framework pGet the facts nWhat are the relevant facts of the case? nWhat facts are not known? nCan I learn more about the situation? Do I know enough to make a decision? nWhat individuals and groups have an important stake in the outcome? Are some concerns more important? Why? nHave all the relevant persons and groups been consulted? nWhat are the options for acting? Have I identified creative options? 3-44
    • 45. Ethical Decision Making Framework Ethical Decision Making Framework pEvaluate alternative actions/options nWhich option will produce the most good and do the least harm? nWhich option best respects the rights of all who have a stake? nWhich option treats people equally or proportionately? nWhich option best serves the community as a whole, not just some members? nWhich option leads me to act as the sort of person I want to be? 3-45
    • 46. Ethical Decision Making Framework Ethical Decision Making Framework pMake a decision and test it nConsidering all these approaches, which option best addresses the situation? nIf I told someone I respect – or told a television audience – which option I have chosen, what would they say? 3-46
    • 47. Ethical Decision Making Framework Ethical Decision Making Framework pAct and reflect on the outcome nHow can my decision be implemented with the greatest care and attention to the concerns of all stakeholders? nHow did my decision turn out? nWhat have I learned from this specific situation? 3-47
    • 48. Ethical Decision Making Framework Ethical Decision Making Framework pThese do provide a principled framework to engage in making good decisions for which managers and leaders bear responsibility pFurther judgment can be made by taking into consideration the basic ethical principles; discussed earlier in this chapter 3-48
    • 49. Ethical Decision Making Framework for an Executive  Ethical Decision Making Framework for an Executive 1.Recognize that people come to organizations with personal motives 2.Direct efforts to induce cooperation towards a common effort 3.Support the organizational purpose 4.Design impersonal goals that translate the organization’s purpose into meaningful projects Barnard, 1968 3-49
    • 50. Aristotle’s Ethical Decision Making Paradigm Aristotle’s Ethical Decision Making Paradigm pKnowledge of the good nFor managers and leaders, the primary sources of knowledge are research and experience pTechniques that help to reach the good nFor managers and leaders, techniques are learned in formal and informal teachings where reflection on practice facilitates the development of expertise pPractice 3-50
    • 51. Aristotle’s Ethical Decision Making Paradigm ideas concerning what is good, proper, and just techniques discrete skills to achieve what is good, proper, and just practice a practical judgment about what must be done in this situation, given what theory and best practice suggest knowledge Aristotle’s Ethical Decision Making Paradigm 3-51
    • 52. Aristotle’s Ethical Decision Making Paradigm Aristotle’s Ethical Decision Making Paradigm pFor Aristotle, ethical practice is not: nDictating to others what the good is and what they ought to do pFor Aristotle, ethical practice is: nResponding; pto the right person pat the right time pto the right extent pat the right way 3-52
    • 53. Aristotle’s Ethical Decision Making Paradigm Aristotle’s Ethical Decision Making Paradigm pFor Aristotle; what is crucial is why managers or leaders do what they do and the quality of character revealed in very practical decisions p“…that is not for everyone, nor is it easy; wherefore goodness is both rare and praiseworthy and noble.” Aristotle 3-53
    • 54. Aristotle’s Ethical Decision Making Paradigm Aristotle’s Ethical Decision Making Paradigm pThus: nEvidencing a virtuous character revealed in practical wisdom when making decisions nBearing responsibility for the choices made nInculcating (teaching frequently) virtue throughout the organization as a shared purpose 3-54
    • 55. Golden Rule Golden Rule Golden Rule for making decisions: In such a case what do I want them to do on me? J.C. Maxwell, Business Ethics or “Treat others as you would want to be treated.” Neal Hawkins 3-55
    • 56. Golden Rule pAccording to Maxwell, factors that can tarnish (weaken) the Golden Rule are: 1.Pressure pMany of the ethical violations that keep emerging in corporate America today are due to executives’ “cooking the books” §They do it to make their organizations appear more successful than they are 2.Pleasure 3.Power 4.Pride 5.Priorities 6.Profit 3-56 Golden Rule
    • 57. Slide112 Pressure Pleasure Power Pride Priorities Profit Factors That Can Tarnish (Weaken) Golden Rule 3-57
    • 58. Trolley Problem pA trolley is running out of control down a track. In its path are five people who have been tied to the track by a mad philosopher. Fortunately, you could pull the lever, which will lead the trolley down a different track to safety. Unfortunately, there is a single person tied to that track. pShould you flip the switch or do nothing? Philippa Foot (Oxford Review, Number 5, 1967) Trolley Problem 3-58
    • 59. Trolley Problem pYou have two options: 1.Do nothing, and the trolley kills the five people on the main track. 2.Pull the lever, diverting the trolley onto the side track where it will kill one person. pWhich is the correct choice? Trolley Problem 3-59
    • 60. Trolley Problem-Modified pAs before, a trolley is hurtling down a track towards five people. You are on a bridge under which it will pass, and you can stop the trolley by dropping a heavy weight in front of it. As it happens, there is a very fat man next to you - your only way to stop the trolley is to push him over the bridge and onto the track, killing him to save five. pShould you proceed? Judith Jarvis Thomson, Killing, Letting Die, and the Trolley Problem, 59 The Monist 204-17 (1976) Trolley Problem-Modified 3-60
    • 61. Trolley Problem-Modified pMost people who approved of sacrificing one to save five in the first case do not approve in the second sort of case. This has led to attempts to find a relevant moral distinction between the two cases. pOne clear distinction is that in the first case, one does not intend harm towards anyone – harming the one is just a side effect of switching the trolley away from the five. However, in the second case, harming the one is an integral part of the plan to save the five. Trolley Problem-Modified 3-61
    • 62. Ethics Related New Turkish Organizations pTEID (http://www.teid.org/) nFounded in May 2010, Ethics and Reputation Society “TEID” is a non-profit organization aiming to develop and encourage adherence to universally recognized business ethics principles and disseminating those in Turkish Business environment pTICE (http://www.tice.org.tr/) nTurkish Integrity Center of Excellence – TICE was established by Ethics and Reputation Society of Turkey in 2014 with the mission of levelling the playing field, by inclusion of the private sector into combatting corruption Ethics Related New Turkish Organizations 3-62