Slide1QUESTION You are a system integrator involved in the process of developing a complex large scale system; the engineering approach is to structure, facilitate, design, develop and implement a new software system. Some other companies are developing similar kind of software, you as an experienced systems integrator been involved in making a decision between two alternatives; fist is to develop the software system to be independent from any other software product in the Market including the platform; and the second is to develop the software to work in conjunction and in complement to some other software, assume any value systems, for example one of the value system is for the software to be portable….., explain how are you going to make a decision, justify your answer by following the decision making process. Show in particular how you would proceed with the input, tools and techniques in order to accomplish the final product. Take in consideration, for example that your company is adding more features to the software system, the growth of the market and the demand for such a software, the need for new technologies, availability of professionals to work in developing such software, …etc Two Alternative Decisions: •Develop the software system to be independent from any other software product in the Market including the platform •Develop the software to work in conjunction and in complement to some other software, assume any value systems
Slide6DECISION A decision is a choise made from among availale alternatives. Decision making is the process of identifying and choosing alternative courses of action. DECISION MAKING MODELS To make better decisions, most managers start by defining the problem. Defining the problem removes distractions that are irrelevant to the decision. Once they have a clear understanding the problem, they can determine alternate ways of approaching the problem. Implementing the best alternative is always the course of action, but the best alternative looks different for many companies. After implementing the solution, managers measure their choice to ensure they consistently make wise decisions. The Decision Model is an intellectual template for perceiving, organizing, and managing the business logic behind a business decision. An informal definition of business logic is it is a set of business rules represented as atomic elements of conditions leading to conclusions. A more formal definition of business logic is “a means by which a business derives a conclusion from facts.” So, business logic is a prescription for the way business experts want to evaluate facts in order to arrive at a conclusion where the conclusion has both meaning and value to the business. Therefore, a business decision is defined as a conclusion that a business arrives at through business logic and which the business is interested in managing. The two approaches managers may take to making decisions are: •Rational model of decision making (Classical model) •Non-rational models of decision making
Slide3RATIONAL DECISION MAKING PROCESS A rational decision-making model provides a structured and sequenced approach to decision-making that helps to ensure discipline and consistency throughout the process. There are different types of rational models; the number of steps involved, and even the specific steps employed, differ from one model to the next. However, the typical steps include: defining the situation/decision to be made; identifying the important criteria and the desired result; considering all possible solutions; measuring the consequences of these solutions against the benefit of satisfying the criteria; and choosing the best option. The models often involve plugging information into a graph or chart. This information usually includes facts as well as assumptions. And the scoring method is designed to produce the optimal decision. The rational decision model is a model of the planning process involving a number of rational actions or steps. Taylor (1998) outlines five steps, as follows: •Definition of the problems and/or goals; •Identification of alternative plans/policies; •Evaluation of alternative plans/policies; •Implementation of plans/policies; •Monitoring of effects of plans/policies.
Slide5ADVANTAGES OF RATIONAL DECISION MAKING PROCESS •Generate all possible solutions. •Generate objective assessment riteria •Assumes accurate, stable and complete knowledge of all alternatives, preference, goals and consequences. •Assumes a rational, reasonable, non-political world. DISADVANTAGES OF RATIONAL DECISION MAKING PROCESS •It is a group based decision making process. If the problem is not identified properly then we may face a problem as each and every member of the group might have a different definition of problem. •Whole assessment should be correct otherwise one can get wrong solution. •Planner defines the problem not goal. •Time consuming process.
Slide7EXAMPLE OF RATIONAL DECISION MAKING PROCESS Define and structure the Problem: •Current technology is old, slow and expensive •Other competitive companies in the market have better software technology •Losing market share because of lack of technology Generate Options: •Develop the software system to be independent from any other software product in the Market including the platform. •Develop the software to work in conjunction and in complement to some other software, assume any value systems. •Develop the software from other companies, which has better technologies. Gather, collect and fuse the data: •In the market, there are more advanced technologies and developing smilar software can reduce the risk to fail the software because it is working with other companies. •New and untried technology could improve the income really fast if it succees •New technology could be expensive and useless. •If the company wants to lead the market new technology is the great way to develop. It could be faster and easier than all product in the market. •In complement software system could integrate easier than create new software. Evaluate options: •Develop new independent software could create a great impact for the customers and customers can feel that if they use our product they would feel like they are using best product that is ahead of its time. •Develop similar software in the market could also have a little bit innovation but the main function must follow the product in the market. It is safe and risk-free. •Develop software to work in complement is easier to create a system works in harmony. Develop new system is expensive and much more work to do because it needs to start from beginning.
Slide8Select option: •Develop the software to work in conjunction and in complement to some other software, assume any value systems. This is the best way to increase power in market and efficiency of company. Implement selected option: •Develop software with the datas in the market and find most effecient software. •Analyzing the compatibility of the system and the software •Create subsystems and special software feature for all subsystems. •Software also could work in conjuction and in complement with all databases and other hardwares. Actions for the company to accomplish selected option: •Coding and developing a software that works with other systems need experienced employees in that field. Company needs to employ enough people like that. •The Company follows the market and need to make a research about software’s success and failure possibilities. •Integration of system also could be the part of this process because its large scale softwares that needs to work together and because of that company needs to employ also people who have really good knowledge about system integration. •The Company needs to create new business partnership with strong technology companies like Apple, Facebook and Google and need to exchange technological knowledge with them.