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    Java programming

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    java polymorphism

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    Java programming

    • 1. 10  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 10 Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism
    • 2. Slide39  2005 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved. 2 One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them, One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them. —John Ronald Reuel Tolkien General propositions do not decide concrete cases. —Oliver Wendell Holmes A philosopher of imposing stature doesn’t think in a vacuum. Even his most abstract ideas are, to some extent, conditioned by what is or is not known in the time when he lives. —Alfred North Whitehead Why art thou cast down, O my soul? —Psalms 42:5
    • 3. OBJECTIVES  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 OBJECTIVES In this chapter you will learn: §The concept of polymorphism. §To use overridden methods to effect polymorphism. §To distinguish between abstract and concrete classes. §To declare abstract methods to create abstract classes. §How polymorphism makes systems extensible and maintainable. §To determine an object's type at execution time. §To declare and implement interfaces.
    • 4. Slide4  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 •10.1 Introduction •10.2 Polymorphism Examples •10.3 Demonstrating Polymorphic Behavior •10.4 Abstract Classes and Methods •10.5 Case Study: Payroll System Using Polymorphism • 10.5.1 Creating Abstract Superclass Employee • 10.5.2 Creating Concrete Subclass SalariedEmployee • 10.5.3 Creating Concrete Subclass HourlyEmployee • 10.5.4 Creating Concrete Subclass CommissionEmployee • 10.5.5 Creating Indirect Concrete Subclass BasePlusCommissionEmployee • 10.5.6 Demonstrating Polymorphic Processing, Operator instanceof and Downcasting • 10.5.7 Summary of the Allowed Assignments Between Superclass and Subclass Variables •10.6 final Methods and Classes
    • 5. Slide15  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 •10.7 Case Study: Creating and Using Interfaces • 10.7.1 Developing a Payable Hierarchy • 10.7.2 Declaring Interface Payable • 10.7.3 Creating Class Invoice • 10.7.4 Modifying Class Employee to Implement Interface Payable • 10.7.5 Modifying Class SalariedEmployee for Use in the Payable Hierarchy • 10.7.6 Using Interface Payable to Process Invoices and Employees Polymorphically • 10.7.7 Declaring Constants with Interfaces • 10.7.8 Common Interfaces of the Java API •10.8 (Optional) GUI and Graphics Case Study: Drawing with Polymorphism •10.9 (Optional) Software Engineering Case Study: Incorporating Inheritance into the ATM System •10.10 Wrap-Up
    • 6. 10.1  Introduction   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 10.1 Introduction •Polymorphism –Enables “programming in the general” –The same invocation can produce “many forms” of results •Interfaces –Implemented by classes to assign common functionality to possibly unrelated classes
    • 7. 10.2  Polymorphism Examples   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 10.2 Polymorphism Examples •Polymorphism –When a program invokes a method through a superclass variable, the correct subclass version of the method is called, based on the type of the reference stored in the superclass variable –The same method name and signature can cause different actions to occur, depending on the type of object on which the method is invoked –Facilitates adding new classes to a system with minimal modifications to the system’s code
    • 8. Software Engineering Observation 10.1  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 Software Engineering Observation 10.1 Polymorphism enables programmers to deal in generalities and let the execution-time environment handle the specifics. Programmers can command objects to behave in manners appropriate to those objects, without knowing the types of the objects (as long as the objects belong to the same inheritance hierarchy).
    • 9. Software Engineering Observation 10.2  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 Software Engineering Observation 10.2 Polymorphism promotes extensibility: Software that invokes polymorphic behavior is independent of the object types to which messages are sent. New object types that can respond to existing method calls can be incorporated into a system without requiring modification of the base system. Only client code that instantiates new objects must be modified to accommodate new types.
    • 10. 10.3  Demonstrating Polymorphic Behavior   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 10.3 Demonstrating Polymorphic Behavior •A superclass reference can be aimed at a subclass object –This is possible because a subclass object is a superclass object as well –When invoking a method from that reference, the type of the actual referenced object, not the type of the reference, determines which method is called •A subclass reference can be aimed at a superclass object only if the object is downcasted
    • 11. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 Outline PolymorphismTest .java (1 of 2) Typical reference assignments
    • 12. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Outline PolymorphismTest .java (2 of 2) Assign a reference to a basePlusCommissionEmployee object to a CommissionEmployee3 variable Polymorphically call basePlusCommissionEmployee’s toString method
    • 13. 10.4  Abstract Classes and Methods   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 10.4 Abstract Classes and Methods •Abstract classes –Classes that are too general to create real objects –Used only as abstract superclasses for concrete subclasses and to declare reference variables –Many inheritance hierarchies have abstract superclasses occupying the top few levels –Keyword abstract •Use to declare a class abstract •Also use to declare a method abstract –Abstract classes normally contain one or more abstract methods –All concrete subclasses must override all inherited abstract methods
    • 14. 10.4  Abstract Classes and Methods (Cont.)  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 14 10.4 Abstract Classes and Methods (Cont.) •Iterator class –Traverses all the objects in a collection, such as an array –Often used in polymorphic programming to traverse a collection that contains references to objects from various levels of a hierarchy
    • 15. Software Engineering Observation 10.3  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 Software Engineering Observation 10.3 An abstract class declares common attributes and behaviors of the various classes in a class hierarchy. An abstract class typically contains one or more abstract methods that subclasses must override if the subclasses are to be concrete. The instance variables and concrete methods of an abstract class are subject to the normal rules of inheritance.
    • 16. Common Programming Error 10.1   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 Common Programming Error 10.1 Attempting to instantiate an object of an abstract class is a compilation error.
    • 17. Common Programming Error 10.2  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 Common Programming Error 10.2 Failure to implement a superclass’s abstract methods in a subclass is a compilation error unless the subclass is also declared abstract.
    • 18. Fig. 10.2 | Employee hierarchy UML class diagram.   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 Fig. 10.2 | Employee hierarchy UML class diagram.
    • 19. Software Engineering Observation 10.4  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 Software Engineering Observation 10.4 A subclass can inherit “interface” or “implementation” from a superclass. Hierarchies designed for implementation inheritance tend to have their functionality high in the hierarchy—each new subclass inherits one or more methods that were implemented in a superclass, and the subclass uses the superclass implementations. (cont…)
    • 20. Software Engineering Observation 10.4  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 20 Software Engineering Observation 10.4 Hierarchies designed for interface inheritance tend to have their functionality lower in the hierarchy—a superclass specifies one or more abstract methods that must be declared for each concrete class in the hierarchy, and the individual subclasses override these methods to provide subclass-specific implementations.
    • 21. 10.5.1 Creating Abstract Superclass Employee   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 21 10.5.1 Creating Abstract Superclass Employee •abstract superclass Employee –earnings is declared abstract •No implementation can be given for earnings in the Employee abstract class –An array of Employee variables will store references to subclass objects •earnings method calls from these variables will call the appropriate version of the earnings method
    • 22. Fig. 10.3 | Polymorphic interface for the Employee hierarchy classes.   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 22 Fig. 10.3 | Polymorphic interface for the Employee hierarchy classes.
    • 23. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 23 Outline Employee.java (1 of 3) Declare abstract class Employee Attributes common to all employees
    • 24. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 24 Outline Employee.java (2 of 3)
    • 25. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 25 Outline Employee.java (3 of 3) abstract method earnings has no implementation
    • 26. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 26 Outline SalariedEmployee .java (1 of 2) Class SalariedEmployee extends class Employee Call superclass constructor Validate and set weekly salary value Call setWeeklySalary method
    • 27. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 27 Outline SalariedEmployee .java (2 of 2) Override earnings method so SalariedEmployee can be concrete Override toString method Call superclass’s version of toString
    • 28. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 28 Outline HourlyEmployee .java (1 of 2) Class HourlyEmployee extends class Employee Call superclass constructor Validate and set hourly wage value
    • 29. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 29 Outline HourlyEmployee .java (2 of 2) Validate and set hours worked value Override earnings method so HourlyEmployee can be concrete Override toString method Call superclass’s toString method
    • 30. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 30 Outline CommissionEmployee .java (1 of 3) Class CommissionEmployee extends class Employee Call superclass constructor Validate and set commission rate value
    • 31. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 31 Outline CommissionEmployee .java (2 of 3) Validate and set the gross sales value
    • 32. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 32 Outline CommissionEmployee .java (3 of 3) Override earnings method so CommissionEmployee can be concrete Override toString method Call superclass’s toString method
    • 33. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 33 Outline BasePlusCommission Employee.java (1 of 2) Class BasePlusCommissionEmployee extends class CommissionEmployee Call superclass constructor Validate and set base salary value
    • 34. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 34 Outline BasePlusCommission Employee.java (2 of 2) Override earnings method Call superclass’s earnings method Override toString method Call superclass’s toString method
    • 35. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 35 Outline PayrollSystemTest .java (1 of 5)
    • 36. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 36 Outline PayrollSystemTest .java (2 of 5) Assigning subclass objects to supercalss variables Implicitly and polymorphically call toString
    • 37. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 37 Outline PayrollSystemTest .java (3 of 5) If the currentEmployee variable points to a BasePlusCommissionEmployee object Downcast currentEmployee to a BasePlusCommissionEmployee reference Give BasePlusCommissionEmployees a 10% base salary bonus Polymorphically call earnings method Call getClass and getName methods to display each Employee subclass object’s class name
    • 38. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 38 Outline PayrollSystemTest .java (4 of 5)
    • 39. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 39 Outline PayrollSystemTest .java (5 of 5) Same results as when the employees were processed individually Base salary is increased by 10% Each employee’s type is displayed
    • 40. 10.5.6 Demonstrating Polymorphic Processing, Operator instanceof and Downcasting   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 40 10.5.6 Demonstrating Polymorphic Processing, Operator instanceof and Downcasting •Dynamic binding –Also known as late binding –Calls to overridden methods are resolved at execution time, based on the type of object referenced •instanceof operator –Determines whether an object is an instance of a certain type
    • 41. Common Programming Error 10.3  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 41 Common Programming Error 10.3 Assigning a superclass variable to a subclass variable (without an explicit cast) is a compilation error.
    • 42. Software Engineering Observation 10.5   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 42 If at execution time the reference of a subclass object has been assigned to a variable of one of its direct or indirect superclasses, it is acceptable to cast the reference stored in that superclass variable back to a reference of the subclass type. Before performing such a cast, use the instanceof operator to ensure that the object is indeed an object of an appropriate subclass type. Software Engineering Observation 10.5
    • 43. Common Programming Error 10.4  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 43 Common Programming Error 10.4 When downcasting an object, a ClassCastException occurs, if at execution time the object does not have an is-a relationship with the type specified in the cast operator. An object can be cast only to its own type or to the type of one of its superclasses.
    • 44. 10.5.6 Demonstrating Polymorphic Processing, Operator instanceof and Downcasting (Cont.)  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 44 10.5.6 Demonstrating Polymorphic Processing, Operator instanceof and Downcasting (Cont.) •Downcasting –Convert a reference to a superclass to a reference to a subclass –Allowed only if the object has an is-a relationship with the subclass •getClass method –Inherited from Object –Returns an object of type Class •getName method of class Class –Returns the class’s name
    • 45. 10.5.7 Summary of the Allowed Assignments Between Superclass and Subclass Variables   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 45 10.5.7 Summary of the Allowed Assignments Between Superclass and Subclass Variables •Superclass and subclass assignment rules –Assigning a superclass reference to a superclass variable is straightforward –Assigning a subclass reference to a subclass variable is straightforward –Assigning a subclass reference to a superclass variable is safe because of the is-a relationship •Referring to subclass-only members through superclass variables is a compilation error –Assigning a superclass reference to a subclass variable is a compilation error •Downcasting can get around this error
    • 46. 10.6  final Methods and Classes   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 46 10.6 final Methods and Classes •final methods –Cannot be overridden in a subclass –private and static methods are implicitly final –final methods are resolved at compile time, this is known as static binding •Compilers can optimize by inlining the code •final classes –Cannot be extended by a subclass –All methods in a final class are implicitly final
    • 47. Performance Tip 10.1  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 47 Performance Tip 10.1 The compiler can decide to inline a final method call and will do so for small, simple final methods. Inlining does not violate encapsulation or information hiding, but does improve performance because it eliminates the overhead of making a method call.
    • 48. Common Programming Error 10.5  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 48 Common Programming Error 10.5 Attempting to declare a subclass of a final class is a compilation error.
    • 49. Software Engineering Observation 10.6  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 49 In the Java API, the vast majority of classes are not declared final. This enables inheritance and polymorphism—the fundamental capabilities of object-oriented programming. However, in some cases, it is important to declare classes final—typically for security reasons. Software Engineering Observation 10.6
    • 50. 10.7  Case Study: Creating and Using Interfaces   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 50 10.7 Case Study: Creating and Using Interfaces •Interfaces –Keyword interface –Contains only constants and abstract methods •All fields are implicitly public, static and final •All methods are implicitly public abstract methods –Classes can implement interfaces •The class must declare each method in the interface using the same signature or the class must be declared abstract –Typically used when disparate classes need to share common methods and constants –Normally declared in their own files with the same names as the interfaces and with the .java file-name extension
    • 51. Good Programming Practice 10.1  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 51 Good Programming Practice 10.1 According to Chapter 9 of the Java Language Specification, it is proper style to declare an interface’s methods without keywords public and abstract because they are redundant in interface method declarations. Similarly, constants should be declared without keywords public, static and final because they, too, are redundant.
    • 52. Common Programming Error 10.6  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 52 Common Programming Error 10.6 Failing to implement any method of an interface in a concrete class that implements the interface results in a syntax error indicating that the class must be declared abstract.
    • 53. 10.7.1 Developing a Payable Hierarchy   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 53 10.7.1 Developing a Payable Hierarchy •Payable interface –Contains method getPaymentAmount –Is implemented by the Invoice and Employee classes •UML representation of interfaces –Interfaces are distinguished from classes by placing the word “interface” in guillemets (« and ») above the interface name –The relationship between a class and an interface is known as realization •A class “realizes” the method of an interface
    • 54. Good Programming Practice 10.2  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 54 Good Programming Practice 10.2 When declaring a method in an interface, choose a method name that describes the method’s purpose in a general manner, because the method may be implemented by a broad range of unrelated classes.
    • 55. Fig. 10.10  | Payable interface hierarchy UML class diagram.   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 55 Fig. 10.10 | Payable interface hierarchy UML class diagram.
    • 56. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 56 Outline Payable.java Declare interface Payable Declare getPaymentAmount method which is implicitly public and abstract
    • 57. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 57 Outline Invoice.java (1 of 3) Class Invoice implements interface Payable
    • 58. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 58 Outline Invoice.java (2 of 3)
    • 59. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 59 Outline Invoice.java (3 of 3) Declare getPaymentAmount to fulfill contract with interface Payable
    • 60. 10.7.3 Creating Class Invoice   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 60 10.7.3 Creating Class Invoice •A class can implement as many interfaces as it needs –Use a comma-separated list of interface names after keyword implements •Example: public class ClassName extends SuperclassName implements FirstInterface, SecondInterface, …
    • 61. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 61 Outline Employee.java (1 of 3) Class Employee implements interface Payable
    • 62. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 62 Outline Employee.java (2 of 3)
    • 63. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 63 Outline Employee.java (3 of 3) getPaymentAmount method is not implemented here
    • 64. 10.7.5 Modifying Class SalariedEmployee for Use in the Payable Hierarchy   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 64 10.7.5 Modifying Class SalariedEmployee for Use in the Payable Hierarchy •Objects of any subclasses of the class that implements the interface can also be thought of as objects of the interface –A reference to a subclass object can be assigned to an interface variable if the superclass implements that interface
    • 65. Software Engineering Observation 10.7  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 65 Inheritance and interfaces are similar in their implementation of the “is-a” relationship. An object of a class that implements an interface may be thought of as an object of that interface type. An object of any subclasses of a class that implements an interface also can be thought of as an object of the interface type. Software Engineering Observation 10.7
    • 66. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 66 Outline SalariedEmployee .java (1 of 2) Class SalariedEmployee extends class Employee (which implements interface Payable)
    • 67. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 67 Outline SalariedEmployee .java (2 of 2) Declare getPaymentAmount method instead of earnings method
    • 68. Software Engineering Observation 10.8  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 68 Software Engineering Observation 10.8 The “is-a” relationship that exists between superclasses and subclasses, and between interfaces and the classes that implement them, holds when passing an object to a method. When a method parameter receives a variable of a superclass or interface type, the method processes the object received as an argument polymorphically.
    • 69. Software Engineering Observation 10.9  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 69 Software Engineering Observation 10.9 Using a superclass reference, we can polymorphically invoke any method specified in the superclass declaration (and in class Object). Using an interface reference, we can polymorphically invoke any method specified in the interface declaration (and in class Object).
    • 70. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 70 Outline PayableInterface Test.java (1 of 2) Declare array of Payable variables Assigning references to Invoice objects to Payable variables Assigning references to SalariedEmployee objects to Payable variables
    • 71. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 71 Outline PayableInterface Test.java (2 of 2) Call toString and getPaymentAmount methods polymorphically
    • 72. Software Engineering Observation 10.10  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 72 Software Engineering Observation 10.10 All methods of class Object can be called by using a reference of an interface type. A reference refers to an object, and all objects inherit the methods of class Object.
    • 73. 10.7.7 Declaring Constants with Interfaces   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 73 10.7.7 Declaring Constants with Interfaces •Interfaces can be used to declare constants used in many class declarations –These constants are implicitly public, static and final –Using a static import declaration allows clients to use these constants with just their names
    • 74. Software Engineering Observation 10.11  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 74 Software Engineering Observation 10.11 As of J2SE 5.0, it is considered a better programming practice to create sets of constants as enumerations with keyword enum. See Section 6.10 for an introduction to enum and Section 8.9 for additional enum details.
    • 75. Fig. 10.16 | Common interfaces of the Java API.(Part 1 of 2)  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 75 Fig. 10.16 | Common interfaces of the Java API. (Part 1 of 2)
    • 76. Fig. 10.16 | Common interfaces of the Java API.  (Part 2 of 2)  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 76 Fig. 10.16 | Common interfaces of the Java API. (Part 2 of 2)
    • 77. Fig. 10.17 | MyShape hierarchy.   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 77 Fig. 10.17 | MyShape hierarchy.
    • 78. Fig. 10.18 | MyShape hierarchy with MyBoundedShape.    2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 78 Fig. 10.18 | MyShape hierarchy with MyBoundedShape.
    • 79. Fig. 10.19 | Attributes and operations of classes BalanceInquiry, Withdrawal and Deposit.   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 79 Fig. 10.19 | Attributes and operations of classes BalanceInquiry, Withdrawal and Deposit.
    • 80. 10.9 (Optional) Software Engineering Case Study: Incorporating Inheritance into the ATM System   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 80 10.9 (Optional) Software Engineering Case Study: Incorporating Inheritance into the ATM System •UML model for inheritance –The generalization relationship •The superclass is a generalization of the subclasses •The subclasses are specializations of the superclass •Transaction superclass –Contains the methods and fields BalanceInquiry, Withdrawal and Deposit have in common •execute method •accountNumber field
    • 81. Fig. 10. 20 | Class diagram modeling generalization of superclass Transaction and subclasses BalanceInquiry, Withdrawal and Deposit. Note that abstract class names (e.g., Transaction) and method names (e.g., execute in class Transaction) appear in italics.   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 81 Fig. 10. 20 | Class diagram modeling generalization of superclass Transaction and subclasses BalanceInquiry, Withdrawal and Deposit. Note that abstract class names (e.g., Transaction) and method names (e.g., execute in class Transaction) appear in italics.
    • 82. Fig. 10.21 | Class diagram of the ATM system (incorporating inheritance). Note that abstract class names (e.g., Transaction) appear in italics.   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 82 Fig. 10.21 | Class diagram of the ATM system (incorporating inheritance). Note that abstract class names (e.g., Transaction) appear in italics.
    • 83. Software Engineering Observation 10.12  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 83 Software Engineering Observation 10.12 A complete class diagram shows all the associations among classes and all the attributes and operations for each class. When the number of class attributes, methods and associations is substantial (as in Fig. 10.21 and Fig. 10.22), a good practice that promotes readability is to divide this information between two class diagrams—one focusing on associations and the other on attributes and methods.
    • 84. 10.9 (Optional) Software Engineering Case Study: Incorporating Inheritance into the ATM System (Cont.)  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 84 10.9 (Optional) Software Engineering Case Study: Incorporating Inheritance into the ATM System (Cont.) •Incorporating inheritance into the ATM system design –If class A is a generalization of class B, then class B extends class A –If class A is an abstract class and class B is a subclass of class A, then class B must implement the abstract methods of class A if class B is to be a concrete class
    • 85. Fig. 10.22 | Class diagram with attributes and operations (incorporating inheritance). Note that abstract class names (e.g., Transaction) and method names (e.g., execute in class Transaction) appear in italic   2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 85 Fig. 10.22 | Class diagram with attributes and operations (incorporating inheritance). Note that abstract class names (e.g., Transaction) and method names (e.g., execute in class Transaction) appear in italic
    • 86. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 86 Outline Withdrawal.java Subclass Withdrawal extends superclass Transaction
    • 87. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 87 Outline Withdrawal.java Subclass Withdrawal extends superclass Transaction
    • 88. Software Engineering Observation 10.13  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 88 Software Engineering Observation 10.13 Several UML modeling tools convert UML-based designs into Java code and can speed the implementation process considerably. For more information on these tools, refer to the Internet and Web Resources listed at the end of Section 2.9.
    • 89. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 89 Outline Transaction.java (1 of 2) Declare abstract superclass Transaction
    • 90. Outline  2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 90 Outline Transaction.java (2 of 2) Declare abstract method execute