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    In Which Way Liberalism Has Influenced Modern Understandings of Citizenship

    Published: December 20, 2018

    Liberalism, as a political philosophy, is often viewed as being primarily concerned with the relationship between the individual and the state and limiting state intrusions on the liberties of citizens. (Kymlicka, 1991) İn other saying, liberalism is an idea that seeks to guarantee the freedom of the individual, autonomy, fundamental rights, and thus limits the political power.

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    In Which Way Liberalism Has Influenced Modern Understandings of Citizenship

    • 1. In Which Way Liberalism Has Influenced Modern Understandings of Citizenship In Which Way Liberalism Has Influenced Modern Understandings of Citizenship
    • 2. Slide2 Liberalism, as a political philosophy, is often viewed as being primarily concerned with the relationship between the individual and the state, and limiting state intrusions on the liberties of citizens. (Kymlicka, 1991) İn other saying, liberalism is an idea that seeks to guarantee the freedom of the individual, autonomy, fundamental rights, and thus limits the political power.
    • 3. Slide4 ■Along with the Renaissance, the understanding of individualism and freedom, which is one of the basic principles of liberalism, has been settled. The human individual has begun to be perceived as an abstract and separate entity from society, and the point of view of collecting, religious and human being has changed.
    • 4. Slide3 ■The French Revolution and the human rights instruments published by the American Revolution also contributed to the development of liberalism. These documents emphasize that people are equal, free, rational individuals, and these documents have provided the transition from the intellectual level to the practical level of liberalism. The intellectual foundations of liberalism were essentially the result of the collapse of the medieval order and the free expression of the opinions of thinkers such as Locke and Hume in the context of the created freedom.
    • 5. Slide5 ■These thinkers, who say that everyone is born free, define "the state as a political organization based on a social contract in which citizens participate through their inherent, indispensable rights for their freedom and equality and their power to determine their own destiny. These thinkers, which we call social contractors theorist, say that the state is an abstract entity and the fundamental individual. The state is bound to the law and the main task of the state is to guarantee the innate rights that the individual possesses and government does it by law.
    • 6. Slide6 ■ In other words from the liberal point of view, the state; civil society is different from basically, with some features shared. Both are based on profit. But the state is a force-based and compulsory institution. The state can go on to the lives of its members at the same time, and at the same time, all situations of the individual are under state control. The state is free from any kind of identity.
    • 7. Slide7 ■ On the other hand, there are too many answer about the questions which what the basic principles of liberalism? Liberalism is often defined in terms of the primacy of individual liberty. This is already two concepts: individualism and liberty. These apply to all human persons, which is to say the principles are universal. Individualism and universalism are supported by the idea that persons have in some sense an innate moral equality merely by virtue of their humanity.
    • 8. Slide18 ■Finally, pluralism, or a commitment to toleration of diversity of belief and culture, directly obtains from the moral equality of individuals and their free use of reason. (Currents, 2018).
    • 9. Slide8 ■Briefly we can list the tis principles; limited minimal state, free enterprise, individualism, human rights, state under the law, freedom, and cooperation. As Charles Larmore said “Liberalism, I have said, entails focusing on what reasonable people can still share, despite their differences about the good life. But we would badly misunderstand its nature, if we supposed its guiding principles to consist simply in whatever might turn out to be common ground among reasonable people otherwise divided by their convictions.
    • 10. Slide17 ■More fundamental than the political principles on which they will agree is the very commitment to organize political life along these lines, to seek principles that can be the object of reasonable agreement. This commitment forms the moral core of liberal thought, and it embodies a principle of respect for persons. (Charles Larmore, 1999)
    • 11. Slide9 ■ After these explanations of liberalism, it is useful to look at how the concept of modern citizenship is defined.
    • 12. Slide10 ■ The modem concept of citizenship is constructed on the Rousseau's notion of self-determination. In the course of time, citizenship is more than political membership, but possession of certain civil rights. It gained an apologetic content in addition to membership in a democratic homogeneous community. Modem citizenship consists of three features (Leca, 1992: 17-18): (a) a judicial status which confers rights and obligations vis-a-vis a political collectivity; (2) a group of social roles for making choices in the political arena; (3) an ensemble of moral qualities required for the character of the 'good' citizen. (Kartal, 2001-2002)
    • 13. Slide11 ■ The concept/institution of citizenship in general develops in each country's own conditions and legal order. For example, the main factor in shaping the concept of citizenship in the UK has been immigration. There is no distinction in British citizenship such as religion or language race. However, there are citizenship traits due to migration and other reasons.
    • 14. Slide12 ■ The concept of citizenship that liberalism put forward is now legally adopted. That is the concept of citizenship is not exposed to discrimination legally. Fundamental rights and freedoms are guaranteed by law. An order in which the individual is kept on top of everything and has not undergone any separation freely expressing his thoughts has been provided lawfully but it is sometimes only at the legal level in the twenty-first century. Individuals who are legally in the status of citizens sometimes face racial discrimination.
    • 15. Slide13 ■ As a result, if we summarize the of liberalism influenced modern understandings of citizenship; we can see the basic principles of which we mentioned above positively. Liberalism emphasizes that citizens are the citizen there is no white citizens, immigrant citizens, black citizens etc. It is the most basic criterion of being a human being.
    • 16. Slide15 ■Today some theories about become indistinct of borders are being put forward. When we look at this point, liberalism is more suited to a multicultural structure of individual focus. Besides multiculturalism, it also includes a more appropriate definition of citizenship for the multinational state.
    • 17. Slide16 ■We may mention to a more equal life in the boundaries of this description. At that point when we look the liberal policy sometimes we hear the voice of Martin Luther King and I can the sounds of liberalism that defining individual like speech of Martin Luther King on Lincoln's square “I have a dream that my four little children live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” (King, -)
    • 18. Slide14 ■The sounds of liberalism that defining individual like speech of Martin Luther King on Lincoln's square “I have a dream that my four little children live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” (King, -)