Slide2Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice and the enforcement of a legal code by authority.
Slide3It includes political authority, the formation, the source of this authority, how it maintains its power, the relationship between the political authority and the individual and the opinions that explain whether they can be a better and fairer one.
Slide15The main topics of political philosophy are: oWhat is the function of the state? oIs the state necessary? oWhat is the source of power? oHow should the individual-state relationship be? oWhat should be the best form of management? oWhat are the types of sovereignty? oWhat is bureaucracy? oWhat is civil society? oWhat are the basic rights of the individual?
Slide5There are different opinions regarding the source of power.
Slide6•Protection and security needs. In this sense, the state exists as a social necessity. The state says that rulers hold the power to govern in order to meet this need. This view is expressed as a naturalistic view.
Slide7•The second opinion is based on religious explanation. The rulers are there for the fulfillment of God's commandments. Because the source of power is seen as God, people have to obey the rules of the state. The source of power is regarded as divine commandments.
Slide8•The third view is based on the assumption that people are socially contracted to meet the needs of people, social cohesion, order and security. Social contract is the common consensus of people. This gives the rulers the power to use the power of power.
Slide9Theories of the social contract differed according to their purpose: some were designed to justify the power of the sovereign; on the other hand, some were intended to safeguard the individual from oppression by an all-too-powerful sovereign.
Slide10The theory of social contract is advocated by; oThomas Hobbes, oJohn Locke oJean-Jacques Rousseau.
Slide11•Thomas Hobbes “homo homini lupus” The natural condition of humanity in society is everyone's war against everyone. At this stage, human is the wolf of human and this goes on until united under a state which is a common power.
Slide12John Locke According to John Locke, at the time of the emergence of the state, there was already peace and tranquility among the people. The people and the work were progressing.
Slide17•However, some offenses were committed occasionally. During this period there was no organization to impose sanctions on these crimes. In order to solve disputes arising out of crimes, to maintain peace among people and to impose sanctions on criminals, people have signed a contract and established the state.
Slide13•Jean-Jacques Rousseau According to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, there was happiness, peace and equality among people in natural life. However, in the later periods, the understanding of private property emerged with the transition of people into the agricultural society..
Slide16•With the commencement of trade, equality broke down between people and their upper classes began to emerge. In this period, people were uncomfortable in this situation, and they came together to re-establish this equality, and to establish a structure that would provide the law and justice to remove the distinction between private property and the people. With a delegation they formed, they created a collective entity other than their own personalities and freedoms, and this existence has come to the present as states