- 1. DESIGN DE SIGN
- 2. Edward Tufte Edward Tufte •“The Visual Display of Quantitative Information” Self-published book •Evangelist for good visual design •Most designs are static, but many principles apply to interactive (computer-based) visualization designs •Take these design guidelines with a grain of salt
- 3. Graphical Excellence Graphical Excellence •Tufte’s Principles of Graphical Excellence 1.Graphical excellence is the well-designed presentation of interesting data a matter of substance, of statistics, and of design.
- 4. Graphical Excellence Graphical Excellence •Tufte’s Principles of Graphical Excellence 1.Graphical excellence is the well-designed presentation of interesting data – a matter of substance, of statistics, and of design. 2.Graphical excellence consists of complex ideas communicated with clarity, precision, and efficiency.
- 5. Napoleon’s March to Moscow Napoleon’s March to Moscow
- 6. Minard’s Map ofNapoleon’s March to Moscow Minard’s Map of Napoleon’s March to Moscow
- 7. The Lie Factor The Lie Factor •Tufte coined the term “the lie factor”, which is defined as: •Lie_factor = •“High” lie factor (LF) leads to: •Exaggeration of differences or similarities •Deception •Misinterpretation
- 8. The Lie Factor The Lie Factor •The Lie Factor (LF) can be •LF > 1 •LF < 1 •If LF is > 1, then size of graphic is greater than the size of data •This leads to exaggeration of the data (overstating the data) •If LF < 1, then the size of the data is greater than the graphic •This leads to hiding the of data (understating the data)
- 9. What’s Wrong With This? What’s Wrong With This? •US Department of Transportation had set a series of fuel economy standards to be met by automobile manufacturers, beginning with 18 miles per gallon in 1978 and moving in steps up to 27.5 by 1985.
- 10. What’s Wrong With This? This line represents 18 miles per gallon in 1976, is 0.6 inches long This line represents 27.5 miles per gallon in 1985, is 5.3 inches long What’s Wrong With This?
- 11. Slide56 What’s Wrong With This?
- 12. Similarly Similarly This design contains a lie factor of 9.4
- 13. Similarly Similarly This design contains a lie factor of 9.5
- 14. Other Ways To Lie(with the legend) Other Ways To Lie (with the legend)
- 15. Other Ways To Lie(with the encoding) Other Ways To Lie (with the encoding)
- 16. Other Ways To Lie(with the design variation) Other Ways To Lie (with the design variation)
- 17. Other Ways To Lie(with the design variation) Other Ways To Lie (with the design variation) •The 3D chart capability in Excel:
- 18. Other Ways To Lie(with double-encoding, e.g. size) Other Ways To Lie (with double- encoding, e.g. size) •Here, both width and height encode the same information. The effect is multiplicative. •0.44 (width) * 0.44 (height) = 0.19
- 19. Other Ways To Lie(with unintended encoding) Other Ways To Lie (with unintended encoding)
- 20. Other Ways To Lie(with unintended encoding) Other Ways To Lie (with unintended encoding) •Are we encoding height, area, or volume?
- 21. Other Ways To Lie(with alignment) Other Ways To Lie (with alignment)
- 22. Other Ways To Lie(with limited context) Other Ways To Lie (with limited context)
- 23. Other Ways To Lie(with limited context) Other Ways To Lie (with limited context)
- 24. Other Ways To Lie(with limited context) Other Ways To Lie (with limited context)
- 25. Other Ways To Lie(with limited context) Other Ways To Lie (with limited context)
- 26. Other Ways To Lie(with limited context) Other Ways To Lie (with limited context)
- 27. Design Principles for Graphical Integrity Design Principles for Graphical Integrity 1.The representation of numbers, as physically measured on the surface of the graphic itself, should be directly proportional to the numerical quantities represented. 2.Clear, detailed, and thorough labeling should be used to defeat graphical distortions and ambiguity. Write out explanations of the data on the graphic itself. Label important events in the data. 3.Show data variation, not design variation. 4.The number of information-carrying (variable) dimensions depicted should not exceed the number of dimensions in the data. 5.Graphics must not quote data out of context.
- 28. Data-Ink Data-Ink “Maximize the Data-Ink Ratio”
- 29. The Concept of Data-Ink Ratio The Concept of Data-Ink Ratio Data-Ink Ratio =
- 30. Data-Ink Ratio Data-Ink Ratio •The goal is to aim for high data-ink ratio •Ink used for he data should be relatively large compared to the ink in the entire graphic •Can be thought of as: “proportion of a graphics ink devoted to the non-redundant display of data-information.” •Or, “1.0 – proportion of a graphic that can be erased without loss of data-information.”
- 31. High Data-Ink Ratio Example High Data-Ink Ratio Example
- 32. Low Data-Ink Ratio Example Low Data-Ink Ratio Example
- 33. Example Above, Improved Example Above, Improved •Data-Ink •Ratio of •0.7
- 34. Example Above, Going to Far… Example Above, Going to Far… •Data-Ink •Ratio of •0.0
- 35. “Within Reason” “Within Reason” Maximize the Data-Ink Ratio, within reason. Erase non-data-ink, within reason.
- 36. Erasing Non-Data-Ink? Erasing Non-Data- Ink? •Multiple encodings: 1.Height of the left line 2.Height of the right line 3.Height of shading 4.Position of top horizontal line 5.Position (placement) of the number 6.Value of the number
- 37. Erasing Non-Data-Ink? Erasing Non-Data- Ink? •Common statistical graphs
- 38. Erasing Non-Data Ink? Erasing Non-Data Ink? •Symmetry has its values…
- 39. Redundancy Redundancy
- 40. Redundancy Redundancy •Making the map into a 24 hour cycle adds redundancy, but improves usability
- 41. Redundancy Redundancy
- 42. Redundancy Redundancy
- 43. Application of Editing Application of Editing •Results of a study indicating that one type of element always has a higher value under different experimental conditions
- 44. Application of Editing Application of Editing After removing all “non-data” carrying ink
- 45. Application of Editing Application of Editing The Ink that has been removed
- 46. The Process of Removing The Process of Removing
- 47. Another Example Another Example The atomic volume as a function of the atomic number
- 48. Removing Unnecessary Ink Removing Unnecessary Ink
- 49. First Insight First Insight
- 50. Continuing the Removal Continuing the Removal
- 51. Problem… Problem… •Removing the connecting lines decreases the sense of periodicity… •Let’s try adding in the grid again to see what happens
- 52. Redesign, Trial 1 Redesign, Trial 1
- 53. Final Product Final Product
- 54. Design Principles Based on Data-Ink Ratio Design Principles Based on Data- Ink Ratio 1.Above all else show the data 2.Maximize the data-ink ratio 3.Erase non-data-ink 4.Erase redundant data-ink 5.Revise and edit
- 55. Chart Junk Chart Junk “Non-data-ink or redundant data-ink”
- 56. Discussion Discussion Why is Chartjunk bad? Is it always bad?
- 57. Chart Junk vs. Memory Chart Junk vs. Memory
- 58. Chart Junk vs. Memory Chart Junk vs. Memory
- 59. Eye Gaze Eye Gaze
- 60. Results Results
- 61. Results Results
- 62. Emphasis on Data, Not Graphic Emphasis on Data, Not Graphic Don’t do things just because you can. Do them because they are useful.
- 63. The Duck! The Duck!

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