UPLOAD

    Muhammad Javed

    Lahore, Pakistan

    8.4K

    Transportation

    Published: September 16, 2018

    Transportation

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    Transportation

    • 1. What is Transportation?? 1 What is Transportation?? nTransportation is the movement of people and goods over time and space... nTransportation should be… - Safe - Environmentally Friendly
    • 2. Slide1 2 Source: http://inventorspot.com/what_is_the_future_of_transportation SAFE???
    • 3. Slide3 3 Source: http://inventorspot.com/what_is_the_future_of_transportation SAFE???
    • 4. Emissions from Vehicles 4 ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY ???? Emissions from Vehicles Emissions
    • 5. Transportation Modes 5 Transportation Modes Motorized Non-Motorized • Automobile •Transit -Bus -Rail - Rapid Transit (subway) •Biking •Walking
    • 6. Development of Transportation Modes  6 1860 1893 1923 1948 Time Ridership Horse-drawn Omni bus Cable car Electric Tramway Bus Automobile Development of Transportation Modes
    • 7. Life Cycle of a Transportation Mode 7 Life Cycle of a Transportation Mode Innovation Period Growth to Maturity Decline Nostalgia Ridership Decline Nostalgia Time
    • 8. History of Transportation 8 History of Transportation
    • 9. Slide57 9 Environmentally Friendly Hybrid Cars
    • 10. Hybrid Cars 10 Hybrid Cars Gasoline power + Electric power
    • 11. Slide59 11
    • 12. Slide60 12
    • 13. History of Transportation 13 History of Transportation Year: 1804 Speed: 8 km/h Year: 2008 Speed: ~ 500 km/h
    • 14. Railway  14 Railway Tram Metro Regional Locomotives Interurban High speed Long distance Speed Very High speed In Japan nearly 40 years, In Europe nearly 25 years
    • 15. Slide76 15 Virgin West Coast Pendolino (UK) TGV Duplex (France) KTX (South Korea) AVE (Spain) New Pendolino (Italy) 320 km/h 300 km/h 230 km/h 200 km/h 300 km/h
    • 16. 3 ways we transport on planet earth: 16 3 ways we transport on planet earth: 1) Land -Railway -Highway -Pipeline
    • 17. Slide50 17 2) Sea 3) Air
    • 18. Which mode has the most problems??  18 Which mode has the most problems??
    • 19. Why people like cars? 19 Why people like cars? nWe like the cars nIt often (but not always) is the fastest mode, depending on levels of congestion, time of day and the available alternatives nPrivacy nAutomobiles suggest that you are at a higher level of society nPeople simply enjoy the sensation of driving
    • 20. Importance of Transportation 20 Importance of Transportation nNecessary for economic growth, but not sufficient - The speed, cost, and capabilities of available transportation have a significant economic impact on an area - Countries with better/advanced transportation networks and services are leaders in industry and commerce USA, Japan, Germany, ...
    • 21. Importance of Transportation 21 Importance of Transportation nDetermines the location and character of cities and regions by interacting with land use (e.g. silk road) nNational security
    • 22. Components of the Transportation System 22 Components of the Transportation System nInfrastructure (supply): -Physical facilities: highways, railroads, ports -Transfer points: parking areas, driveways -Supporting elements: signals, signs, safety hardware, etc. nVehicles (demand): Planes, trains, autos, buses, ships, trucks nOperators/users: Drivers, pilots, freight, passengers
    • 23. What is Transportation Engineering 23 What is Transportation Engineering nThe engineering profession is involved in all aspects of -Aeronautical (aircraft) -Chemical (fuel) -Mechanical (vehicles) -Electrical (communications, control system) -Civil (development of facilities and manage demand)
    • 24. Transportation Engineering 24 Transportation Engineering nOne of the specialty areas of civil engineering - Development of facilities for the movement of goods and people - Planning, design, operation and maintenance nPeople oriented
    • 25. Slide13 25 nMulti-disciplinary -Economic -Environmental -Planning -Statistics -Law -Psychology & human factors -Public administration nProblems ==> solutions
    • 26. Areas of Transportation Engineering  26 Areas of Transportation Engineering nTransportation Planning nTraffic Operations (signs, signals,..) nRoadway Geometric Design nPavement Engineering nRailway Engineering nDesign and Planning of Airports
    • 27. Development of Transportation Network 27 Development of Transportation Network nPlanning nDesign nConstruction
    • 28. What is transportation planning? 28 What is transportation planning? Activities that: 1. Identify problems, gather and analyze data 2. Forecast future traffic demands and estimate the environmental and social impacts 3. Evaluate alternatives and determine the alternative that meet the requirements and constraints of the problem at the lowest cost
    • 29. The 4 step transport planning process 29 OUTPUT •Estimated trips •Estimated modal shares •Estimated travel speeds •Estimated travel delays The 4 step transport planning process Step 1: Trip Generation Step 2: Trip Distribution Step 3: Mode Choice Step 4: Trip/ Traffic Assignment Demographic Data Transportatio n Network
    • 30. Trip Generation 30 Trip Generation nDecision to travel for a specific purpose (e.g. eat lunch) -How much do people use the transport system? -Why do people use the transport system? -Where can different types of activities be satisfied? Trip generation Potential
    • 31. Trip Distribution 31 Trip Distribution nChoice of destination (a particular restaurant? The nearest restaurant?) -Given a location, where do people go to satisfy demand for an activity type? -Determine origin and destination of trips Trip distribution Travel demand
    • 32. Mode Choice 32 Mode Choice nHow do people use the transport system? –What modes do they choose (transit, walk, carpool, drive alone,…)? –How do they react to varying transport service quality? Mode choice Transport demand
    • 33. Trip / Traffic Assignment 33 Trip / Traffic Assignment nHow do people use the transport system? –Given a mode, which route do they choose (e.g. E-5..)? –Which parts of the transport system do they use? Route choice Assigned flows
    • 34. Demographic Data 34 Demographic Data nHousehold size nIncome level nAutos per household
    • 35. Network Data 35 Network Data nHighway network nTransit network
    • 36. Capacity Restraint for Highways 36 Capacity Restraint for Highways nA qualitative measure describing operational conditions within a traffic stream and their perception by drivers and/or passengers nDifferent for different facilities (freeway, multilane, 2-lane rural, signals)
    • 37. Ideal Capacity 37 Ideal Capacity nFreeways: Capacity (Free-Flow Speed) 2,400 pcphpl (70 mph) 2,350 pcphpl (65 mph) 2,300 pcphpl (60 mph) 2,250 pcphpl (55 mph) pcphpl=passenger cars per hour per lane nMultilane Suburban/Rural 2,200 pcphpl (60 mph) 2,100 (55 mph) 2,000 (50 mph) 1,900 (45 mph) n2-lane rural – 2,800 pcph nSignal – 1,900 pcphgpl
    • 38. Level of Service (LOS) 38 Level of Service (LOS) nChief measure of “quality of service” –Describes operational conditions within a traffic stream –Does not include safety –Different measures for different facilities –6 measures A through F
    • 39. Definition- Free Flow Speed 39 Definition- Free Flow Speed nFree-Flow Speed (FFS) –The mean speed of passenger cars that can be accommodated under low to moderate flow rates on a uniform freeway segment under prevailing roadway and traffic conditions
    • 40. LOS A  40 LOS A nFree flow conditions nVehicles are unimpeded in their ability to maneuver within the traffic stream
    • 41. LOS B 41 LOS B nFlow reasonably free nAbility to maneuver is slightly restricted nGeneral level of physical and psychological comfort provided to drivers is high
    • 42. LOS C 42 LOS C nFlow at or near FFS nFreedom to maneuver is noticeably restricted nLane changes more difficult nQueues may form behind significant blockage
    • 43. LOS D 43 LOS D nSpeeds begin to decline with increasing flow nFreedom to maneuver is noticeably limited nDrivers experience physical and psychological discomfort nEven minor incidents cause queuing
    • 44. LOS E 44 LOS E nCapacity nVehicles are closely spaced nDisruptions such as lane changes can cause a disruption wave that propagates throughout the upstream traffic flow
    • 45. LOS F 45 LOS F nBreakdown or forced flow nOccurs when: –Traffic incidents cause a temporary reduction in capacity –At points of recurring congestion, such as merge or weaving segments –In forecast situations, projected flow (demand) exceeds estimated capacity
    • 46. Design Level of Service 46 Design Level of Service nThis is the desired quality of traffic conditions from a driver’s perspective (used to determine number of lanes) –Design LOS is higher for rural areas –LOS is higher for level/rolling than mountainous terrain –Other factors include: adjacent land use type and development intensity, environmental factors, and aesthetic and historic values
    • 47. Design Decision 47 Design Decision What can we change in a design to provide an acceptable LOS? nLateral clearance :Distance to fixed objects Assumes –>= 6 feet (1.8 m) from right edge of travel lanes to obstruction –>= 6 feet (1.8 m) from left edge of travel lane to object in median nLane width nNumber of lanes
    • 48. Highway Design 48 Highway Design nProblem Statement nObjective and Constraints nHorizontal Alignment nVertical Alignment nMass Diagram nFinal Report - Blueprint for construction
    • 49. Problem 49 Problem Lombard Street, San Francisco, CA Highway in west China
    • 50. Constraints 50 Constraints nEnvironmental -Wetland, ponds and creeks. nGeometric - 90m flat grade for starting and ending points. - Simple horizontal and vertical curve n Safety - Maximum grade - Minimum radius - Enough stopping sight distance nBudget - Maximum cut-and-fill depth - Mass balance
    • 51. Alignment 51 Alignment nAlignment is a 3D problem broken down into two 2D problems –Horizontal Alignment (plan view) –Vertical Alignment (profile view)
    • 52. Slide46 52 Vertical Alignment Horizontal Alignment
    • 53. Vertical Alignment 53 Vertical Alignment nObjective: –Determine elevation to ensure nProper drainage nAcceptable level of safety nPrimary challenge –Transition between two grades –Vertical curves G1 G2 Crest Vertical Curve G1 G2 Sag Vertical Curve
    • 54. Horizontal Alignment 54 Horizontal Alignment nObjective: –Geometry of directional transition to ensure: nSafety nComfort nPrimary challenge –Transition between two directions –Horizontal curves nFundamentals –Circular curves –Superelevation
    • 55. MassDiagram 55 Cut areas Fill areas Profile Mass diagram Elevation Volume Grade Indicate grade points Indicate points where  cuts =  fills Ground Mass Diagram
    • 56. Pavement Design 56 Pavement Design Flexible Pavements Rigid Pavements (WsDOT, u.d.) Surface layer is asphalt concrete Surface layer is portland cement concrete
    • 57. Questions and Discussion 57 Questions and Discussion