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    Fermentation

    Published: July 27, 2019

    Fermentation is a biochemical process initiated by the action of naturally occurring microorganisms acting on the plant or animal product.

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    Fermentation

    • 1. Fermentation Fermentation
    • 2. Introduction Introduction Fermentation is a biochemical process initiated by the action of naturally occurring microorganisms acting on the plant or animal product.
    • 3. History of Fermentation History of Fermentation The term "ferment" comes from the Latin word fervere, which means "to boil." Fermentation was described by late 14th century alchemists. The chemical process of fermentation became a subject of scientific investigation about the year 1600.
    • 4. What is Fermentation? What is Fermentation? Fermentation is the chemical decomposition of a substance through bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms, usually by heating and bubbling. Fermentation is an important biochemical process that enables ATP production through glycolysis in anaerobic conditions, i.e. in cases where oxidative phosphorylation is not possible.
    • 5. What Is Fermentation? What Is Fermentation? For example, in alcohol fermentation, acetaldehyde, consisting of pyruvate, turns into ethanol by NADH + H+, which is expelled out of the cell. in the fermentation of liquor, the most common simple compound is either pyruvate or one or more of the compounds derived from it: ethanol, lactic acid, hydrogen, distillate, and acetone.
    • 6. Zymology Zymology The Department of Biochemistry dealing with fermentation is zymology. In fermentation, glucose (or any other compound) loses Hydrogen and produces energy. Since there is no oxygen, the simple organic compounds resulting from this decomposition become the ultimate electron acceptor and hydrogen receivers that the cell can use.
    • 7. Final step Final step The final step of fermentation (transformation of pyruvate into fermentation products) is important for an anaerobic cell, even if it does not produce energy, because the nicotinamide adenine that is consumed during the conversion of glucose into pyruvate ensures that dinucleotide (NAD+) is renewed; this is necessary for the continuation of glycolysis.
    • 8. Fermentation types Fermentation types Although fermentation of sugar and amino acids is seen in various living things, some rare organisms can also fermentate alcohol acids, purines, and other compounds. Various fermentation types are called according to the products they produce.
    • 9. What is Fermentation? What is Fermentation? Although the term fermentation is used for energy-producing reactions in biochemistry, it has a more general meaning in the food industry, including the decomposition reactions of microorganisms in the presence of oxygen (such as vinegar fermentation).
    • 10. What is Fermentation? What is Fermentation? In biotechnology, this term is even more commonly used, and all kinds of production (including proteins) is fermented into microorganisms grown in large tanks.
    • 11. Fermentation Of Glucose Fermentation Of Glucose During the fermentation of glucose, pyruvate turns into various compounds: •Alcohol fermentation is the transformation of pyruvate into alcohol and carbon dioxide. •Lactic acid fermentation can be two types:
    • 12. Type Type Homolactic fermentation is the production of lactic acid from pyruvate is seen. When do not receive enough oxygen, they produce lactic acid and maintain short-term energy production. 2 ATP is produced per glucose.
    • 13. Type Type Heterotactic fermentation is the production of lactic acid and other acids and alcohols. For Example. coli can produce lactic acid + ethanol + CO2 from glucosamine via phosphoketolase and obtain 1 ATP in this way.
    • 14. Type Type These include Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Microbacterium species, Enterobacteriaceae family bacteria (e.g. Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Proteus species), and mandatory anaerobic Clostridium species, fermentation with CO2, H2 and various acids (formic, acetic, lactic, succinic), or synthetic products (ethanol, 2.3- Butylene Glycol, butyl, acetone, etc.).) they produce.
    • 15. Type Type Mixed acid fermentation occurs in the Enterobacteriaceae group. The pyruvate consists of acetate and form, or pyruvate, succinic acid and formic acid, and 3 ATP per glucose. In low pH (less than pH 6) formic acid becomes CO2 + H2. Types of Clostridium also make mixed acid fermentation.
    • 16. Amino acid fermentation Amino acid fermentation This fermentation happens during decay and in the absence of carbohydrates, protein-Fed Clostridium-type bacteria are made by. Some amino acids act as an electron acceptor, some act as an electron acceptor, and at the end of the reaction, a variety of bad-smelling products are formed. 3 ATP molecules are produced per amino acid.
    • 17. Energy production Energy production Glycolysis is the only source of adenosine triphosphate ATP in anaerobic conditions. Since fermentation products are not completely oxidized, they have chemical energy. However, in the absence of oxygen or other upgraded electron acceptors, these are no longer products for the cell because they can't be metabolized anymore.
    • 18. Energy production Energy production Therefore, ATP production through fermentation is less efficient than oxidative fermentation in which pyruvate is fully upgraded to carbon dioxide. Although two ATP molecules are produced per glucose in fermentation, this figure is net 38 ATP in aerobic respiration. Although energy efficiency is low, fermentation provides an advantage to many living things as it allows for oxygen deficiency.
    • 19. Energy production Energy production Therefore, ATP production through fermentation is less efficient than oxidative fermentation in which pyruvate is fully upgraded to carbon dioxide. Although two ATP molecules are produced per glucose in fermentation, this figure is net 38 ATP in aerobic respiration. Although energy efficiency is low, fermentation provides an advantage to many living things as it allows for oxygen deficiency.