Operating System Fundamentals

    Published: September 14, 2018

    Components of an OS Functions of an OS Types of OS Command-line tools


    Operating System Fundamentals

    • 1. Operating System Fundamentals Operating System Fundamentals
    • 2. Operating System Fundamentals 1.Components of an OS 2.Functions of an OS 3.Types of OS 4.Command-line tools NEXT » « PREV
    • 3. The Three Elements of an OS The Three Elements of an OS nUser Interface – The part of the OS that you interface with. nKernel – The core of the OS. Interacts with the BIOS (at one end), and the UI (at the other end). nFile Management System – Organizes and manages files. NEXT » « PREV
    • 4. Operating System Functions Operating System Functions nFile Management nApplication Management nBuilt-in Utility Programs nControl of Computer Hardware NEXT » « PREV
    • 5. Operating System Types Operating System Types nMultiuser – Two or more users work with the computer at the same time nMultitasking – Two or more processes running at the same time. nMultithreading – Two or more parts of the same process running at the same time. NEXT » « PREV
    • 6. PC Operating Systems PC Operating Systems nMicrosoft Windows nMacIntosh OS nLinux NEXT » « PREV
    • 7. MS Windows Versions MS Windows Versions nHome (Non-Professional) Versions •Windows 95 •Windows 98 •Windows Me nProfessional (Business) Versions •Windows NT •Windows 2000 nThe Two Lines Came Together in Windows XP (2001) NEXT » « PREV
    • 8. Disk Operating System (DOS) Disk Operating System (DOS) The first PC Operating System (1981) Not a Multitasking OS, only one program could run at a time a command-line interface, no GUI. Early versions of Windows sat on top of DOS and used it to communicate with the BIOS. Windows XP communicates directly with the BIOS, but allows commands to be entered via a command prompt. NEXT » « PREV
    • 9. File System File System nA file is a collection of bytes of information treated as a single unit. nIt is given a name to make it easy to find and use later. nThe file system keeps track of where a file is actually resident on a disk. nA disk (hard disk, floppy, optical disk) is subdivided into directories or folders. NEXT » « PREV
    • 10. File System (continued) File System (continued) nThe top level folder on a disk is known as the root. nThe root is generally subdivided into subfolders. nAny folder or subfolder can contain files and other folders. nThe fully-qualified filename includes the name of the file and the path to the folder in which it resides: c:\courses\061\cit141\chapter4.ppt NEXT » « PREV
    • 11. Windows Registered File Types Windows Registered File Types A particular file extension can be registered and associated with a particular program. •.docx files are associated with MS Word •.xlsx files are associated with MS Excel •.txt files are associated with Notepad •.html files are associated with IE This is how Windows knows what to do when you double-click a file in My Computer. NEXT » « PREV
    • 12. File Attributes File Attributes Each file has four attributes which can be viewed or set. •Read Only – File may be viewed, copied, executed (if appropriate), but not changed. It can be deleted. •Hidden – File will not be displayed in normal list of files. •System – File is identified to belong to system, should not be messed with. •Archive – File is (or is not) a candidate for backup. NEXT » « PREV
    • 13. DOS Commands DOS Commands nTwo types – Internal and External •Internal commands are resident in the main kernel file: command.com (or cmd.exe) •External commands are separate little programs. nIt's important to learn DOS commands because you can write scripts to execute a set of commands automatically. NEXT » « PREV
    • 14. The Command Prompt The Command Prompt By default, it reminds you of the current drive and the current directory. NEXT » « PREV
    • 15. Three Parts of a DOS Command Three Parts of a DOS Command xcopy /m/e c:\temp d:\temp Command Name Switches Parameters NEXT » « PREV
    • 16. DOS Wildcard Characters DOS Wildcard Characters nThe characters ? and * can be used to affect multiple files with a single command. •The ? means any single character. copy c:\temp\notes??.doc d:\temp means copy any Word file that begins with the word "notes" with exactly two other characters, like "notes01.doc", "notesAB.doc", etc. NEXT » « PREV
    • 17. DOS Wildcard Characters DOS Wildcard Characters •The "*" wildcard replaces any number of characters. copy c:\temp\notes.* d:\temp (copy all files with the name "notes" and any extension.) copy *.doc c:\temp (copy all files with a "doc" extension in the current directory.) NEXT » « PREV
    • 18. At the Command Prompt At the Command Prompt nA drive letter and a ":" (e.g. "f:") makes that your current drive. nCD (Change Directory) •cd (with no parameters) reminds you what the current directory is. •cd .. moves you to the parent of the current directory (up one level). •cd \ moves you to the root of the current drive. •cd makes that your current directory. NEXT » « PREV
    • 19. DOS Commands DOS Commands nMD – Make directory. nRD – Remove a directory or an entire directory tree. nDIR – Display the contents of a directory. nDEL (or ERASE) – Deletes one or more files. nCOPY – Places a copy of file(s) in a different folder. nXCOPY – Flexible copy command used for copying large groups of files, commonly used for file backup. NEXT » « PREV
    • 20. More DOS Commands More DOS Commands nMOVE – Moves file(s) from one folder to another. nREN(AME) – Renames file(s). nATTRIB – Displays or sets file attributes. nFORMAT – Formats a disk. nCHKDSK – Tests the file system on a disk, and reports status. NEXT » « PREV
    • 21. Even More Even More nDATE and TIME – Display & set the current date & time in the PC. nTYPE – Displays the contents of a text file. NEXT » « PREV