MarxismMarxism Main alternative to liberalist and realist approaches to global politics Two key tendencies: 1.Primary attention to economic analysis, mainly concerned with criticism of capitalism 2.Emphasis on ideological and cultural dimension of oppression
From classical to neo-MarxismFrom classical to neo-Marxism Marx: 1.Economic factors drive history 2.History is headed for revolution, then Socialism, then Communism Lenin: 1.imperialism highest state of capitalism 2.Imperialism is economic 3.Lead to WW1
Neo-MarxismNeo-Marxism Developed “Dependency Theory” Post-1945: neo-colonialism Creates proliferation of weak, dependent states “World-Systems Theory”: interlocking economic system Consists of inequalities, exploitation and tendency towards instability and crisis Theories influenced development of late 1990s anti- globalisation movements….
Cultural Imperialism Cultural Imperialism Globalisation is ‘top-down’ A global monoculture imposed on all from a single dominant system Powerful states exert domination over the weaker ones Indigenous cultures are sublimated Values, belief systems cultural traditions and customs are displaced
The Anti-globalisation movementThe Anti-globalisation movement Anti-globalization movement was/is critical of the globalisation of corporate capitalism. Participants base criticisms on: Opposition to large, multi-national corporations having unregulated political power and to powers exercised through trade agreements and deregulated financial markets. Corporations accused of seeking to maximize profit at expense of : 1.work safety conditions and standards, 2.labour hiring and compensation standards, 3.environmental conservation 4.integrity of national authority, independence and sovereignty.
Cause 1 - Opposition to international financial institutions and multinational corporationsCause 1 - Opposition to international financial institutions and multinational corporations Common targets include • World Bank (WB), •International Monetary Fund (IMF) •World Trade Organization (WTO) •Free trade treaties like the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). They are particularly concerned about the economic gap between rich and poor countries. They point to the heavy subsidies received by farmers in many developed countries as a cause of poverty in farms in developing countries. They also criticise the power of the dollar – the so called ‘dollar hegemony’.
Cause 2 - opposition to neoliberalismCause 2 - opposition to neoliberalism Neoliberal doctrine argues: free trade & reduction of regulation brings benefits to poor countries & to disadvantaged people in rich countries (top-down theory) The Anti-globalisation movement argue that: • Preservation of the natural environment, • Human rights (especially workplace rights and conditions) and • Democratic institutions… …are all likely to be placed at undue risk by globalisation unless mandatory standards are attached to trade liberalisation.
CAUSE 3 - Anti-war movementCAUSE 3 - Anti-war movement By 2002, many parts of movement opposed invasion of Iraq. Anti-globalisationists worried for democratic institutions as leaders of many democratic countries (Spain, Italy, Poland and the United Kingdom) acted against the wishes of the majority of their populations in supporting the war. They argued that leaders such as Tony Blair "showed their contempt for democracy". The economic and military issues are closely linked in the eyes of many within the movement.
Should they be called anti-globalisation?Should they be called anti- globalisation? •Many participants consider the term "anti-globalisation" to be incorrect. •The term suggests that its followers support protectionism and/or nationalism, which is not always the case. •Some activists see the movement as opposed instead to neoliberalism or "corporate globalisation“ •They are actually more in favour of globalisation, in the sense of “open of borders and the free movement of people, possessions and ideas" than are the IMF or WTO. •Their idea of globalisation goes beyond economic sphere
Criticisms of the movementCriticisms of the movement 1.A lack of evidence - Critics argue that evidence does not support the views of the anti-globalisation movement. 2.Disorganisation - movement lacks coherent goals, and that the views of different protesters are often in opposition to each other. 3.Lack of effectiveness - one of the major causes of poverty amongst third-world farmers are the trade barriers put up by rich nations and poor nations alike. 4.Lack of widespread "Third World" support - poor countries (the Third World) have been relatively accepting and supportive of globalisation (BUT who?) 5.The strongest opposition to globalisation has come from wealthy "First World" activists, unions and NGOs. A middle class movement