Slide2Internet: How did it start? •In 1969, United States Department of Defense creates ARPANET (Advance Research Project Agency), the first “web.” •The purpose: To create a computer network that would withstand a nuclear attack!
Slide3Internet: How did it start? •The system is decentralized. •Thinking on military strategic terms Pentagon tries to create a system that would continue functioning if one part of it is destroyed under an enemy nuclear attack. •This naturally leads to a system that is not controlled by a single center.
Slide4Teletext Technology (1971) About the same period as Americans were developing their military computer web, BBC introduced the teletext technology.
Slide71981-1982: Dial-up The first commercial online services went live in 1979. First dial-up services, closed systems to which only the subscribers could access, emerged in 1981-1982. •Compuserve (owned by H&R Block) and The Source (owned by The Reader's Digest) are considered the first major commercial online services created to serve the market of personal computer users.
Slide81981-1982: Dial-up Prodigy (a joint venture between broadcaster CBS and IBM.) Utilizing text-based interfaces and menus, these services allowed anyone with a modem and communications software to use email, chat, news, financial and stock information, bulletin boards, special interest groups (SIGs), forums and general information. Subscribers could exchange email only with other subscribers of the same service.
Slide10•1983 - Time Magazine nominates the computer “The Machine of the Year” •1984 - Apple introduces the Macintosh computer. $2,495 with black and white monitor. 50,000 are sold in 75 days in the US.
Slide13In November 1992 CERN (Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire) in Switzerland reports that there are 26 reliable servers on the worldwide web. In 1988 the US Defense Department had already opened the web to public
Slide14In 1993 there are 200 servers on the worldwide web (www) an increase of 670 percent in over a year. First journalism site on the web is introduced by the University of Florida.
Slide151998 Drudge Report breaks the Monica Lewinsky, Bill Clinton scandal
Slide16Drudge Report, an American news aggregation website, originated in 1996 as a weekly subscriber- based eMail dispatch. It consists mainly of links to stories from the US and international mainstream media about politics, entertainment, and current events
Slide17Classified ads bring money 2003 news websites begin earning money when classified ads shift from newspapers to electronic media.
Slide18Internet Turkey •1963 ODTÜ Elektronik Hesap Merkezi •1985 20 terminalli bir web sistemi •1992 Hollanda üzerinden ilk Internet bağlantısı •1993 İlk PTT hattı (64K) Washington üzerinden bağlantı •1997’den itibaren de özel sunucular devreye girdi
Slide19The State of the News Media 2004 •“A growing number of news outlets are chasing relatively static or even shrinking audiences for news. One result of this is that most sectors of the news media are losing audiences. •The only sectors seeing general audience growth today are online, ethnic and alternative media. Pew Research Center on Journalism
Slide20In the USA full-time professional newsroom employment declined another 6.4% in 2012 with more losses expected for 2013.
Slide22So what is online journalism? •Journalistic activities primarily conducted for disseminating information through the internet •Online journalism is JOURNALISM •Online simply defines the method of delivery to the audience.
Slide23Strength of Online Journalism •Unlimited space: Unlike traditional media, online journalism does not have time and space restrictions. •Global access: Anybody who has access to internet all over the world can drop in any time. •Convergence: It makes possible convergence of text, graphics, audio and video (Multimedia)
Slide24Strength of Online Journalism II •Hypertext: Linking to other content immediately. •Interactive capacity: The audience has the ability to participate in the discussion of topics, structure of the web page and has a greater control on the content. •Storage and retrieval: Great advantage in using archives and making research.
Slide25Weaknesses of Online Journalism •Difficult to control: •After all, though there are a few governing bodies and consortia, there's no real central control system for the Internet. No one really knows with 100% certainty exactly how many websites exist, for example, or how many new websites are set up each day. •Netcraft's March 2012 website survey discovered 644,275,754 active websites, to be precise.
Slide26Weaknesses II •Difficult to distinguish between good and bad news sites. •Causes ethical problems regarding: •Privacy •Accuracy versus speed •Copyrights •Advertising •Easily manipulated
Slide27You can’t buy attention . . . you can’t make (people) interested in what you have to say, unless they actually find the content of what you have to say engaging. So money is less powerful than usual on the Web. But if you can gather a lot of attention, you can then, potentially, translate that into money. David Gauntlett (2000)
Slide28Online journalism What is different about online journalism? •Radio & TV news bulletins are linear •Online news is not! Because it is interactive and the reader can choose items you are offering.
Slide29•Online is a distinctive medium because it is user-driven and multifaceted. •All elements of the medium should support the offering of the content. •The application of core journalistic principles and processes should be applied at all stages of online content creation and presentation, from the original idea to the finished page or site. Online journalism
Slide30Core journalistic principles •Identify and find news and/or information which will attract and interest the key audience/readers; •Collect all the materials needed to tell the story/provide the information; •Select from the collection the best material; and present that material as effectively as possible.
Slide31Non-linear presentation •Divide your story into component pieces, look for similarities or trends in those pieces, group your pieces into logical categories, •Reconstruct your story, using storyboards, to group the pieces under those categories and build cross- links. •Each story will have one section which is the ‘linear kernel’ – the essence of the story – plus other sections which will provide additional information, background and explanations.
Slide32The Huff Post The Huffington Post (Huff Post or HuffPo) was launched on May 10, 2005 as a liberal/left commentary outlet and alternative to news aggregators such as the Drudge Report. On February 7, 2011, AOL acquired the mass market Huffington Post for US$315 million, making Arianna Huffington editor-in-chief of The Huffington Post Media Group. In 2012, The Huffington Post became the first commercially run United States digital media enterprise to win a Pulitzer Prize. *Wikipedia
Slide33The Vise News Vice News is current affairs channel, producing daily documentary essays and video through its website and YouTube channel. It promotes itself on its coverage of "under-reported stories”. Before Vice News was founded, Vice published news documentaries and news reports from around the world through its YouTube channel. *Wikipedia
Slide34The Vise News In August 2013, Rupert Murdoch's corporation 21st Century Fox invested $70 million (US) in Vice Media (of which Vice News is a division), resulting in a 5% stake. On 29 August 2014, A&E Networks—a joint venture of Hearst Corporation and The Walt Disney Company— announced it would acquire a 10% minority stake in Vice Media, Vice News' parent company, for $250 million. *Wikipedia
Slide35UK flood warning: thousands evacuated from homes - live updates • Evacuation under way on east coast and in Wales • Two confirmed killed as storms strike UK • Scotland's railway network closed • Thames barrier to be deployed • Read the latest summary • Extreme weather conditions in the UK- in pictures • Send your stories, video and images to GuardianWitness
Slide36Dividing your story into smaller pieces maximizes the potential readership. Stories can be complex, with various themes, angles and areas of coverage. As a result, readers will be interested in different parts of the story and for different reasons. When presented with a single pyramid story, readers have to work through the stuff that doesn’t interest them to find the material that does.