Two kinds of sellingTwo kinds of selling §Personal §Plenty of time to deliver the message §Done face to face §Message can be adjusted to fit how it’s getting across §Easy to find customers §Expensive in both time and money §Labor-intensive §Time consuming
Non-PersonalNon-Personal nLimited in time and/or space nDon’t know who the customer is nDon’t know how the customer is reacting nCan’t change the message in mid-stream nMessage doesn’t have to be created on the spot nExtensive research nFar cheaper than personal selling
Affirmative disclosureAffirmative disclosure "Sometimes the consumer is provided not with information he wants but only with the information the seller wants him to have. Sellers, for instance, are not inclined to advertise negative aspects of their products even though those aspects may be of primary concern to the consumer, particularly if they involve considerations of health or safety . . . " Lewis A. Engman, FTC Chair
PufferyPuffery nThe legitimate exaggeration of advertising claims to overcome natural consumer skepticism
The bundle of valuesThe bundle of values nFunctional value nSocial value nPsychological value nEconomic value nWhatever else the consumer thinks is important
Three ways to differentiate productsThree ways to differentiate products •Perceptible •Actual differences •Easily seen •Imperceptible •Actual differences •Can’t be seen •Induced •No actual differences •Parity products
Ad written on a Roman tombAd written on a Roman tomb Weather permitting, 30 pairs of gladiators, furnished by A. Clodius Flaccus, together with substitutes in case any get killed too quickly, will fight May 1st, 2nd, and 3rd at the Circus Maximus. The fights will be followed by a big wild beast hunt. The famous gladiator Paris will fight. Hurrah for Paris! Hurrah for the generous Flaccus, who is running for Duumvirate.
Slide49Under the ad was written: Marcus wrote this sign by the light of the moon. If you hire Marcus, he’ll work day and night to do a good job. Daniel Mannix, Those About to Die
Industrial RevolutionIndustrial Revolution nEarly 19th Century nMass production of products nLed to three stages of marketing
Production-orientedProduction-oriented nDemand far outstripped supply nCould just advertise the existence of the product and where to get it. nWhatever was made was sold. nExample: People wanted cars, so car companies made whatever they wanted and the cars were sold before they were built.
Sales-orientedSales-oriented nSupply exceeded demand nCompanies tried to convince consumers to buy their products rather than their competitors’ nCompanies still made whatever they wanted, counting on their ability to peddle their products nExample: supply of cars went up, so the companies made whatever they wanted and convinced people they wanted that
Marketing-orientedMarketing-oriented nSupply of products far exceeded demand nMore choices than any promotion could overcome nResistance to “hard-sell” nCompanies tried to discover what products consumers wanted before making them, then advertise they had it nNon-American companies (e.g., VW) found out what people wanted, then built cars that had it (e.g., a gas gauge)
Slide70nEarly sales-oriented ads were basically “caveat emptor” (let the buyer beware) nProducers said whatever they wanted and thought they could get away with nFor example, the “Health Jolting Chair”
Slide71nLed to consumer and competitor anger. n1938 – Federal Trade Commission given power to regulate deceptive and unfair advertising. nAdvertising could no longer lie, so new approaches were tried.
40s and 50s40s and 50s nEra of the hard-sell nRosser Reeves “irritation school of advertising” nRelied on brain-numbing repetition and treating the consumer as an idiot nThe USP – Unique Selling Proposition nIt was jack-hammered into consumers’ skulls
60s60s qThe positioning era qShift to the soft-sell nCompare your product to your competitors’ nTreat consumers as intelligent qAppeal to emotion more than intellect
General comments on adsGeneral comments on ads nAdvertising is limited in time and/or space Breaks the rules of grammar and syntax nAds contain two elements Copy illustrations
Two basic ways of presenting a sales messageTwo basic ways of presenting a sales message §Intellectually •Usually about the product’s function •Usually copy heavy and line drawings §Emotionally •Usually not about the product’s function •Usually copy is light with high connotative content •Uses photographs or video
Slide7nAdvertising aims at consumers’ subconscious minds much more than their conscious minds nIt’s all about getting the consumer to react on a basic, instinctive level, and not think at all nIt’s about “act now” on your basic desires – think only of yourself nIt’s usually selfish and anti-social
Self-preservationSelf-preservation n“Listen to me, I’ll keep you alive” nBecause humans are so social, we extend the appeal to others, like family, friends, and social group
Sex AppealSex Appeal n“Listen to me, I’ll get you laid” nGender linked because of different goals: •For men it’s sex with ease and no complications •In other words, attract more women that want to have sex with you •For women it’s attract more men from which to choose •Select the best among the possible choices, and the greater the selection, the better the choice
Slide12nFor most animals, it is the female that deals with raising offspring (a major part of the cost of sex) nThe male has no place in rearing offspring (she’ll even drive him away) nThe major exception is birds •Even there, the female will often select one male as the father, and another male to help her raise the chicks
Sex appeal in humansSex appeal in humans nHumans have the most complex social life on Earth nInstinctive criteria for men are the same as for any other male animal – she’s there nCriteria for women is far more complex: •Not just genetically, but socially: •Be a good father – help with raising children •be a good provider – have money, social connections, etc.
GreedGreed n“Listen to me, I’ll make you rich” nHuman social life requires having resources, usually represented by money nInstinctively, “greed is good”
Self-esteemSelf-esteem nRequires a social group, nRequires the individual to be able to make a comparison with other individuals in the group, nThus, requires a sense of self as a separate entity from others.
Self-esteemSelf-esteem nAgain, there’s an instinctive gender link •For men, it’s competitive •Demonstrate he’s the best male around •Self-esteem comes from a sense of superiority •For women, it’s cooperative •Make and maintain as many connections as possible •Self-esteem comes from a sense of connection
Self-esteem for menSelf-esteem for men nDemonstration of superiority nBuy the product, be the superior man nOften shows a “loser” beating a “winner” because the loser buys the product
Self-esteem for womenSelf-esteem for women nThe product increases the number and quality of connections with others
Personal EnjoymentPersonal Enjoyment n“Listen to me, you’ll have more fun” nHumans, because of their intelligence, are often easily bored by routine nThe ad promotes getting out of the routine nIn other words, have fun
ConstructivenessConstructiveness n“Listen to me, I’ll help you improve things” nA desire to build and improve on whatever you have
DestructivenessDestructiveness n“Listen to me, I’ll tell you how to destroy things” nWe all have a desire to occasionally blow things up •Just watch “The Mythbusters” nThere does seem to be a gender link – men seem to like it more than women
CuriosityCuriosity n“Listen to me, I’ll answer your questions” nWe all want answers to things – it’s a survival characteristic nThe problem is raising that curiosity – if the person doesn’t care about the answer, it’s a useless appeal
ImitationImitation n“Listen to me, I’ll make you just like someone else” nRequires the person to want to be like the model nAlmost always linked to one or the top five appeals
AltruismAltruism n“Listen to me, you’ll give of yourself with no hope or expectation of return” nDoesn’t exist as an ideal nReciprocal altruism does exist •I’ll do for you now, you do for me later nLinked to top five
Tricks of the TradeTricks of the Trade nAdvertising often uses logical fallacies rather than giving logical reasons to buy the product advertised. nYou think the ad is saying one thing when it fact it’s saying something else, or saying nothing at all
Black/WhiteBlack/White n“You want it [whatever it is], you can only get it from us.” nIt leaves out any other options, e.g., “love it or leave it.”
Buzz WordsBuzz Words nWords that seem to say something, but what? •“Crisp” •“Natural” •“Organic”
Weasel WordsWeasel Words nWords tossed into a sentence that changes the meaning while leaving an impression that’s different
“Our [canned] corn is as good as fresh cooked corn.” Libby’s Vegetables“Our [canned] corn is as good as fresh cooked corn.” Libby’s Vegetables nNote it doesn’t say it’s as good as fresh corn, but as good as fresh cooked corn. nCooked corn has had vitamins and minerals boiled out in the cooking process. nAnd now you have to heat the corn again, which takes out even more nutrients. nThe weasel is “cooked”
Begging the QuestionBegging the Question nThe question contains a statement that has not been and is never proven, basically saying that something is simply because it is. nExample: •“Henry Miller’s filthy books should be banned.” •Contains the unsupported premise that the books are filthy.
Dangling ComparativeDangling Comparative nThere appears to be a comparison, but compared to what? nIt relies on the consumer filling in the blank
Complaints about advertisingComplaints about advertising nIt perpetuates stereotypes •Absolutely true •It has to nMakes people buy things they don’t need •Not true •Advertising can’t make anybody do anything